Learn More
The impact of individual differences on human reward processing has been a focus of research in recent years, particularly, as they are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Studies exploring the neural basis of individual differences in reward sensitivity have consistently(More)
CONTEXT Although psychiatric disorders are, to date, diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms and course of illness, the interest in neurobiological markers of psychiatric disorders has grown substantially in recent years. However, current classification approaches are mainly based on data from a single biomarker, making it difficult to predict(More)
Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex oxygenation(More)
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and increased impulsivity. To detect micro-deletions and micro-duplications that may have a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD, we carried out a genome-wide screen for copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort(More)
According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between(More)
Randomness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) resting-state time-series has recently been used as a biomarker for numerous disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as autism. To date, however, it remains unknown whether and to what degree personality traits are associated with the randomness of resting-state temporal(More)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an established optical neuroimaging method for measuring functional hemodynamic responses to infer neural activation. However, the impact of individual anatomy on the sensitivity of fNIRS measuring hemodynamics within cortical gray matter is still unknown. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and structural(More)
Pattern recognition approaches, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), have been successfully used to classify groups of individuals based on their patterns of brain activity or structure. However these approaches focus on finding group differences and are not applicable to situations where one is interested in accessing deviations from a specific class(More)
IMPORTANCE Although neuroimaging research has made substantial progress in identifying the large-scale neural substrate of anxiety disorders, its value for clinical application lags behind expectations. Machine-learning approaches have predictive potential for individual-patient prognostic purposes and might thus aid translational efforts in psychiatric(More)