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The impact of individual differences on human reward processing has been a focus of research in recent years, particularly, as they are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Studies exploring the neural basis of individual differences in reward sensitivity have consistently(More)
A major paradigm in the field of obesity research is the existence of an adipose tissue-brain endocrine axis for the regulation of body weight. Leptin, the peptide mediator of this axis, is secreted by adipose cells. It lowers food intake and body weight by acting in the hypothalamus, a region expressing an abundance of leptin receptors and a variety of(More)
CONTEXT Although psychiatric disorders are, to date, diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms and course of illness, the interest in neurobiological markers of psychiatric disorders has grown substantially in recent years. However, current classification approaches are mainly based on data from a single biomarker, making it difficult to predict(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have reported changes in the spontaneous electroencephalogram of women across the menstrual cycle (MC), raising questions on whether sensory or cognitive evoked potentials would change with MC as well. Some of these studies have found changes synchronized with MC in visual event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and brain stem(More)
Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex oxygenation(More)
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and increased impulsivity. To detect micro-deletions and micro-duplications that may have a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD, we carried out a genome-wide screen for copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort(More)
According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced by neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Because genetic MCH deficiency induces hypophagia and loss of body fat, we hypothesized that MCH neurons may represent a specific LHA pathway that, when inhibited, contributes to the pathogenesis of certain anorexia syndromes. To(More)