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CONTEXT Although psychiatric disorders are, to date, diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms and course of illness, the interest in neurobiological markers of psychiatric disorders has grown substantially in recent years. However, current classification approaches are mainly based on data from a single biomarker, making it difficult to predict(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and increased impulsivity. To detect micro-deletions and micro-duplications that may have a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD, we carried out a genome-wide screen for copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort(More)
The impact of individual differences on human reward processing has been a focus of research in recent years, particularly, as they are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Studies exploring the neural basis of individual differences in reward sensitivity have consistently(More)
According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between(More)
Neural processing inferred from hemodynamic responses measured with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) may be confounded with individual anatomical or systemic physiological sources of variance. This may hamper the validity of fNIRS signal interpretations and associations between individual traits and brain activation, such as the link between(More)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an established optical neuroimaging method for measuring functional hemodynamic responses to infer neural activation. However, the impact of individual anatomy on the sensitivity of fNIRS measuring hemodynamics within cortical gray matter is still unknown. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and structural(More)
Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex oxygenation(More)
Feature selection (FS) methods play two important roles in the context of neuroimaging based classification: potentially increase classification accuracy by eliminating irrelevant features from the model and facilitate interpretation by identifying sets of meaningful features that best discriminate the classes. Although the development of FS techniques(More)
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is frequent in panic disorder (PD); yet, little is known about its influence on the neural substrates of PD. Difficulties in fear inhibition during safety signal processing have been reported as a pathophysiological feature of PD that is attenuated by depression. We investigated the impact of comorbid depression in PD with agoraphobia(More)