Tim H. Sparks

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Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements(More)
Data from the Greater Manchester Butterfly Atlas (UK) reveal a highly significant and substantial impact of visits on both species' richness and species' incidence in squares. This effect has been demonstrated for three different zones mapped at different scales. The significant impact of number of visits persists when data are amalgamated for coarser(More)
It is well known that increased spring temperatures cause earlier onset dates of leaf unfolding and flowering. However, a temperature increase in winter may be associated with delayed development when species' chilling requirements are not fulfilled. Furthermore, photosensitivity is supposed to interfere with temperature triggers. To date, neither the(More)
This paper examines the mean flowering times of 11 plant species in the British Isles over a 58-year period, and the flowering times of a further 13 (and leafing time of an additional 1) for a reduced period of 20 years. Timings were compared to Central England temperatures and all 25 phenological events were significantly related (P<0.001 in all but 1(More)
Many analyses do not consider the problems associated with the effects of population size on encounter recording. Population size could impact on the detection of bird arrival time as there is a higher probability of observing earlier arrival when the population size is greater and the song activity of birds is increased, as occurs with a larger population.(More)
Peatlands export more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than any other biome, contributing 20% of all terrestrial DOC exported to the oceans. Both warming and elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) can increase DOC exports, but their interaction is poorly understood. Peat monoliths were, therefore, exposed to eCO2, warming and eCO2 + warming (combined). The combined(More)
Changes in the spring arrival dates of migrant birds have been reported from a range of locations and many authors have focused on long-term trends and their relationship to temperature and other climatic events. Perhaps more importantly, changed arrival dates may have consequences for the breeding dates of birds which strongly influence breeding success.(More)
We studied the size and productivity of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) populations in eight study sites in Poland. The number of nesting pairs and the average number of chicks fledged per pair fluctuated over time, and the studied populations differed in the variance of both breeding success and number of breeding pairs. The variance of breeding success(More)
It is clear from recent research that changes are occurring in the timing of many natural events. In most cases it is assumed that the changes, or most of them, are climate related, although associated changes in distribution, habitat quantity and quality, and population size must not be ignored. In this article we present our opinion that study of the(More)