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Experimental results are presented from vacuum-ultraviolet free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode. The generation of ultrashort radiation pulses became possible due to specific tailoring of the bunch charge distribution. A complete characterization of the linear and nonlinear modes of the SASE FEL(More)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After participating in this educational activity, the reader should be better able to identify the instruments that are currently being used to measure quality of life (QoL) in alcohol abuse and dependence; determine the impact of alcohol abuse and dependence on QoL; and evaluate the impact of treating alcohol abuse and dependence on(More)
Patterns of tobacco use were observed among 749 people diagnosed with mental retardation residing in a state-operated facility. Specifically, individual preference for tobacco products and frequency of use were documented. Subjects were observed using several types of tobacco products: cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, snuff, and cigarette butts.(More)
The laser plasma "beat wave" mechanism for the generation of ultrahigh electric fields requires plasmas of several meters length with density uniformity of about 1 percent. Multiphoton ionization of molecular hydrogen gas at a pressure of a few torr provides a scalable mechanism for generating these plasmas using the same laser beams that drive the beat(More)
A prospective assessment of psychiatric morbidity in a sample of 207 patients with inner ear disorders, attending an ENT clinic, was carried out. As a group, they were found to have higher psychiatric morbidity on the general health questionnaire (GHQ) than either normal samples or samples affected by other forms of physical disease. Within the sample(More)
Patients with a severe mental illness such as schizophrenia have significant rates of concurrent amphetamine use. Such dual diagnosis patients have been shown to have poorer treatment outcomes. Often, they do not comply with treatment plans and have frequent episodes of hospitalization. There is growing evidence for the role of prescribed dexamphetamine in(More)
The TTF phase-1 injector will use a conventional thermionic triode gun as its electron source. The temporal structure of the injector will be obtained by the application of fast (< 1 ns) pulses to the gun cathode. As it is necessary to operate the injector at a fixed average macropulse current of 8 mA, while having the ability to vary the repetition(More)
Experiments conducted on MBE-4, a four-beam Cs/sup +/ induction linac, are discussed. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to approximately 1 MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental(More)