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BACKGROUND We conducted a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of tumor-cell proliferation and angiogenesis, in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. METHODS From November 2003 to March 2005, we randomly assigned 903 patients with renal-cell carcinoma that was resistant to(More)
PURPOSE Mature survival data and evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a prognostic biomarker from the Treatment Approaches in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial (TARGET) study in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS Nine hundred three previously treated patients were randomly assigned to(More)
PURPOSE This phase II randomized discontinuation trial evaluated the effects of sorafenib (BAY 43-9006), an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting the tumor and vasculature, on tumor growth in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients initially received oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily during the initial run-in period.(More)
Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated(More)
The tyrosinase gene is expressed specifically in melanocytes and the cells of the retinal pigment epithelium, which together are responsible for skin, hair, and eye color. By using a combination of DNase I footprinting and band shift assays coupled with mutagenesis of specific DNA elements, we examined the requirements for melanocyte-specific expression of(More)
Since the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease tumour suppressor gene VHL was identified in 1993 as the genetic basis for a rare disorder, it has proved to be of wide medical and scientific interest. VHL tumour suppressor protein (pVHL) plays a key part in cellular oxygen sensing by targeting hypoxia-inducible factors for ubiquitylation and proteasomal(More)
With the advent of targeted agents for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), overall survival has improved, and patients are being treated continuously for increasingly long periods of time. This has raised challenges in the management of adverse events (AEs) associated with the six targeted agents approved in RCC-sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib,(More)
To grow and metastasize, solid tumours must develop their own blood supply by neo-angiogenesis. Thalidomide inhibits the processing of mRNA encoding peptide molecules including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study investigated the use of continuous low dose Thalidomide in(More)
To examine the risk of lung cancer associated with the codon 72, intron 6 and intron 3 TP53 polymorphisms a meta-analysis of published case-control studies was undertaken. The principle outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) for the risk of lung cancer using homozygosity of the 'wild-type allele' as the reference group. Data from 13 studies detailing the(More)
We conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study in UK Caucasians to identify susceptibility alleles for lung cancer, analyzing 1529 cases and 2707 controls. To increase the likelihood of identifying disease-causing alleles, we genotyped 1476 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 871 candidate cancer genes, biasing SNP selection(More)