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BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile are gram-positive, spore forming anaerobic bacteria that are the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, usually associated with antibiotic usage. Metronidazole is currently the first-line treatment for mild to moderate C. difficile diarrhea however recurrence occurs at rates of 15-35%. There are few reports of C.(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN), toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile(More)
Enterococcus faecalis G1-0247 (vancomycin MIC, 16 microg/ml) was found to harbor a vanG operon 99% identical to the vanG operon in E. faecalis BM4518. E. faecalis N03-0233 (vancomycin MIC, 16 microg/ml) was found to harbor a novel vanG operon, vanG2, on an element in a different chromosomal location than the vanG-harboring elements in G1-0247 and BM4518.
PCR-ribotyping has been adopted in many laboratories as the method of choice for C. difficile typing and surveillance. However, issues with the conventional agarose gel-based technique, including inter-laboratory variation and interpretation of banding patterns have impeded progress. The method has recently been adapted to incorporate high-resolution(More)
A questionnaire relating to Clostridium difficile disease incidence and diagnostic practices was sent to 380 Canadian hospitals (all with > 50 beds). The national questionnaire response rate was 63%. In-house testing was performed in 17.6, 61.5, and 74.2% of the hospitals with < 300, 300 to 500, and > 500 beds, respectively. The average test positivity(More)
Clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea; the most common form of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The basis for the shock-like systemic symptoms observed in severe cases of this infection are not known. It is hypothesized that the invasion of C difficile toxins A and/or B from the gut mucosa may contribute to these(More)
The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infections has increased due to the emergence of epidemic variants from diverse genetic lineages. Here we describe the emergence of a novel variant during an outbreak in a Costa Rican hospital that was associated with severe clinical presentations. This C. difficile variant elicited higher white blood cell counts and(More)
The objective of the current study was to determine whether the antimicrobial susceptibility profile or genotype of hospital-acquired isolates of Clostridium difficile differed from isolates causing community-acquired disease. Five hundred diarrhoeal stool samples (one >2 ml sample per patient) from patients across Manitoba, Canada, in 2006-2007 that were(More)
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