Tim D. Holmes

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The mechanisms underlying human natural killer (NK) cell phenotypic and functional heterogeneity are unknown. Here, we describe the emergence of diverse subsets of human NK cells selectively lacking expression of signaling proteins after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The absence of B and myeloid cell-related signaling protein expression in these(More)
Recent evidence suggests a role for natural killer (NK) cells in the control of multiple myeloma. We show that expression of the NK cell receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) is reduced on CD56(dim) NK cells from myeloma patients with active disease compared with patients in remission and healthy controls. This suggested that this receptor might play a role in NK-myeloma(More)
NK cell activation is negatively regulated by the expression of target cell MHC class I molecules. We show that this relationship is nonlinear due to an NK cell activation/inhibition threshold. Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell monolayers, which were highly susceptible to NK cells in vitro, developed a highly resistant phenotype when cultured as(More)
Heterozygous GATA2 mutation is associated with immunodeficiency, lymphedema, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Disease presentation is variable, often coinciding with loss of circulating dendritic cells, monocytes, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Nonetheless, in a proportion of patients carrying GATA2 mutation, NK cells persist. We found that peripheral(More)
Interactions between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) aid DC maturation and promote T-cell responses. Here, we have analyzed the response of human NK cells to tumor cells, and we identify a pathway by which NK-DC interactions occur. Gene expression profiling of tumor-responsive NK cells identified the very rapid induction of TNF(More)
Human natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity. However, studying their activation kinetics during infection is highly problematic. A clinical trial of a therapeutic virus provided an opportunity to study human NK cell activation in vivo in a controlled manner. Ten colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases received(More)
Recent evidence suggests a role for natural killer (NK) cells in the control of multiple myeloma. We show that expression of the NK cell receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) is reduced on CD56 NK cells from myeloma patients with active disease compared with patients in remission and healthy controls. This suggested that this receptor might play a role in NK-myeloma(More)
Several monogenic causes of familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have recently been identified. We studied 2 families with cytopenia, predisposition to MDS with chromosome 7 aberrations, immunodeficiency, and progressive cerebellar dysfunction. Genetic studies uncovered heterozygous missense mutations in SAMD9L, a tumor suppressor gene located on(More)
NK cells induce apoptosis in target cells via the perforin-mediated delivery of granzyme molecules. Cytotoxic human NK cells can be generated by IL-15-mediated differentiation of CD34(+) cells in vitro and these cultures have been used extensively to analyze the development of the NK cell surface phenotype. We have used NK cell differentiation in vitro(More)
REFERENCES 1. Bennett CL, Christie J, Ramsdell F, Brunkow ME, Ferguson PJ, Whitesell L, et al. The immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is caused by mutations of FOXP3. Nat Genet 2001;27:20-1. 2. Barzaghi F, Passerini L, Bacchetta R. Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, x-linked syndrome: a(More)