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Protein phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release and various forms of synaptic plasticity. The PKC substrates responsible for phosphorylation-dependent changes in regulated exocytosis in vivo have not been identified. Munc18a is essential for neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and can be(More)
Homeostatic scaling allows neurons to alter synaptic transmission to compensate for changes in network activity. Here, we show that suppression of network activity with tetrodotoxin, which increases surface expression of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), dramatically reduces levels of the deSUMOylating (where SUMO is small ubiquitin-like modifier) enzyme SENP1,(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity by regulating K(+) fluxes across the plasma membrane. Channel closure is facilitated by ATP, which binds to the pore-forming subunit (Kir6.2). Conversely, channel opening is potentiated by phosphoinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)), which binds to Kir6.2 and reduces channel(More)
Increased protein phosphorylation enhances exocytosis in most secretory cell types, including neurones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs and the specific protein targets remain unclear. Munc18-1/nSec1 is essential for exocytosis in neurones, and is known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro at Ser-313. This(More)
PKC (protein kinase C) has been known for many years to modulate regulated exocytosis in a wide variety of cell types. In neurons and neuroendocrine cells, PKC regulates several different stages of the exocytotic process, suggesting that these multiple actions of PKC are mediated by phosphorylation of distinct protein targets. In recent years, a variety of(More)
The phosphorylation targets that mediate the enhancement of exocytosis by PKC are unknown. PKC phosporylates the SNARE protein SNAP-25 at Ser-187. We expressed mutants of SNAP-25 using the Semliki Forest Virus system in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and then directly measured the Ca2+ dependence of exocytosis using photorelease of caged Ca2+ together with(More)
Multiple pathways participate in the AMPA receptor trafficking that underlies long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Here we demonstrate that protein SUMOylation is required for insertion of the GluA1 AMPAR subunit following transient glycine-evoked increase in AMPA receptor surface expression (ChemLTP) in dispersed neuronal cultures.(More)
The active regulation of spine structure and function is of fundamental importance for information storage in the brain. Many proteins involved in spine development and activity-dependent remodelling are potential or validated substrates for modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO). The functional consequences of neuronal protein SUMOylation(More)
The function of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a predominant molecule in the brain, has not yet been determined. However, NAA is commonly used as a putative marker of viable neurones. To investigate the possible function of NAA, we determined the anatomical, developmental and cellular distribution of aspartoacylase, which catalyses the hydrolysis of NAA. Levels(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are composed of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four regulatory SUR1 subunits. Binding of ATP to Kir6.2 leads to inhibition of channel activity. Because there are four subunits and thus four ATP-binding sites, four binding events are possible. ATP binds to both the open and closed states of the channel and(More)