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Refence centile curves show the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariate, often age. The LMS method summarizes the changing distribution by three curves representing the median, coefficient of variation and skewness, the latter expressed as a Box-Cox power. Using penalized likelihood the three curves can be fitted as cubic(More)
Corticosterone is known to suppress levels of 5-HTA(1A) receptor mRNA in rat hippocampus. We describe hippocampal 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA regulation in mice that have a targeted disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels as well as binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT, were measured in the hippocampus of heterozygous and homozygous(More)
Previous studies in rats using the Morris water maze suggested that the processing of spatial information is modulated by corticosteroid hormones through mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus. Mineralocorticoid receptors appear to be involved in the modulation of explorative behaviour, while additional activation of(More)
BACKGROUND Growth curve analysis is a statistical issue in life course epidemiology. Height in puberty involves a growth spurt, the timing and intensity of which varies between individuals. Such data can be summarized with individual Preece-Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe levels of physical activity, sedentary time and adherence to Chief Medical Officers (CMO) physical activity guidelines among primary school-aged children across the UK using objective accelerometer-based measurements. DESIGN Nationally representative prospective cohort study. SETTING Children born across the UK, between 2000 and(More)
Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by(More)
Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for rickets and osteomalacia in infancy (1). The circulating plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), a long-lived metabolite of vitamin D, is used to judge vitamin D status; values below 25 nmol ⁄ L are associated with an increased risk of rickets and osteomalacia (1).(More)
AIM To examine ethnic and sex differences in the pattern of skeletal maturity from adolescence to adulthood using a novel longitudinal analysis technique (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR)). SETTING Johannesburg, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS 607 boys and girls of black as well as white ethnicity from the Birth to Twenty bone health(More)
We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous data indicate a rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among English children and an emerging socioeconomic gradient in prevalence. The main aim of this study was to update the prevalence trends among school-age children and assess the changing socioeconomic gradient. DESIGN A series of nationally representative(More)