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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere.(More)
From Mycobacterium avium species Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n=961), Mycobacterium a. avium (n=677), Mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n=5), and Mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n=1566) were examined, and from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex M. tuberculosis (n=2), Mycobacterium bovis (n=13), M. bovis BCG (n=4), and Mycobacterium caprae (n=10)(More)
Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) comprise short tandem repeat structures found at multiple loci throughout the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and have been used for typing these pathogens. We have identified MIRU at 18 conserved loci throughout the common portions of the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and M. avium(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. We studied the River Tywi in South Wales, United Kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. The River Tywi is abstracted for the(More)
In South Wales, United Kingdom, a populated coastal region lies beneath hill pastures grazed by livestock in which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is endemic. The Taff is a spate river running off the hills and through the principal city of Cardiff. We sampled Taff water above Cardiff twice weekly from November 2001 to November 2002. M. avium(More)
This study surveys 2,593,348 cattle slaughtered between 1996 and 2000, and further investigates 571 (0.02%) animals found to have tuberculous lesions. Culture of 346 randomly selected tissue samples from animals younger (n = 215) and older (n = 131) than 2 years, isolated mycobacteria from 91 animals (26.3%). These included 74 Mycobacterium avium subsp.(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a pathogen that causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animals, including primates, and is implicated in Crohn's disease in humans. It differs from other members of the M. avium complex in having 14-18 copies of IS900 inserted into conserved loci in its genome. In the present study, genomic DNA(More)
A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC) patient, and two(More)
Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn's(More)
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a member of the M avium complex (MAC). It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species,(More)