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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere.(More)
From Mycobacterium avium species Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n=961), Mycobacterium a. avium (n=677), Mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n=5), and Mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n=1566) were examined, and from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex M. tuberculosis (n=2), Mycobacterium bovis (n=13), M. bovis BCG (n=4), and Mycobacterium caprae (n=10)(More)
Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) comprise short tandem repeat structures found at multiple loci throughout the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and have been used for typing these pathogens. We have identified MIRU at 18 conserved loci throughout the common portions of the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and M. avium(More)
We have used representational difference analysis to identify a novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific ABC transporter operon (mpt), which comprises six open reading frames designated mptA to -F and is immediately preceded by two putative Fur boxes. Functional genomics revealed that the mpt operon is flanked on one end by a fep cluster(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to(More)
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a member of the M avium complex (MAC). It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species,(More)
In South Wales, United Kingdom, a populated coastal region lies beneath hill pastures grazed by livestock in which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is endemic. The Taff is a spate river running off the hills and through the principal city of Cardiff. We sampled Taff water above Cardiff twice weekly from November 2001 to November 2002. M. avium(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a pathogen that causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animals, including primates, and is implicated in Crohn's disease in humans. It differs from other members of the M. avium complex in having 14-18 copies of IS900 inserted into conserved loci in its genome. In the present study, genomic DNA(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. We studied the River Tywi in South Wales, United Kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. The River Tywi is abstracted for the(More)