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We examined physiological features related to water balance in five replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster that have undergone selection for enhanced resistance to desiccation (D populations) and in five replicate control (C) populations. Adult D flies contain 34 % more water than the control flies. We examined two hypotheses for increased water(More)
We have examined starvation and desiccation resistance in 43 outbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster that have diverged from a common ancestral population as a result of a variety of defined selection protocols. The populations differ up to 8.5-fold in desiccation resistance and up to 10-fold in starvation resistance. We used these populations to(More)
We used laboratory natural selection on insects as a means of investigating the role of patterns of gas exchange in desiccation resistance. We used 15 populations of Drosophila melanogaster: five selected for desiccation resistance, five control populations and five ancestral populations. Using flow-through respirometry, we found that D. melanogaster from(More)
A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease, including aortic root dilation, dissection, and rupture, is the leading cause of mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). The maximal aortic root diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva is considered the best predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Although advances in therapy have improved life expectancy,(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute glycemic variability contributes to diabetic complications potentially through induction of inflammation. Our objective was to determine whether acute hyperglycemia affects urinary secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in humans with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics(More)
Resistance to environmental stress is one of the most important forces molding the distribution and abundance of species. We investigated the evolution of desiccation stress resistance using 20 outbred Drosophila melanogaster populations directly selected in the laboratory for adult desiccation resistance (D), postponed senescence (O), and their respective(More)
The respiratory organs of terrestrial insects consist of tracheal tubes with external spiracular valves that control gas exchange. Despite their relatively high metabolic rate, many insects have highly discontinuous patterns of gas exchange, including long periods when the spiracles are fully closed. Two explanations have previously been put forward to(More)
Desiccation resistance and water balance were studied in the adult female mosquitoes Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. When the two species were reared from egg to adult under identical conditions, An. arabiensis had significantly higher desiccation resistance than did An. gambiae. Data are presented that indicate that this(More)
Laboratory selection for desiccation resistance, which has been imposed on five replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for >200 generations, has resulted in enhanced survivability during periods of extreme water stress. The ability of these populations to persistently resist the fatal effects of desiccation is correlated with evolved physiological(More)