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Why have systems of “transnational private regulation” recently emerged to certify corporate social and environmental performance? Different conceptions of institutional emergence underlie different answers to this question. Many scholars argue that firms create certification systems to solve problems in the market—a view rooted in a conception of(More)
Are the politics of economic regulation contingent on institutions? Drawing on arguments about institutional mediation and the institutional bases of rational action, we explore how institutions shape the dynamics invoked in two theories of regulation. We argue that institutional arrangements affect both the clarity and the content of group interests in(More)
Quantum properties of optical modes are typically assessed by observing their photon statistics or the distribution of their quadratures. Both particle- and wave-like behaviours deliver important information and each may be used as a resource in quantum-enhanced technologies. Weak-field homodyne (WFH) detection provides a scheme that combines the wave- and(More)
Nonclassical states of light are necessary resources for quantum technologies such as cryptography, computation and the definition of metrological standards. Observing signatures of nonclassicality generally requires inferring either the photon number distribution or a quasiprobability distribution indirectly from a set of measurements. Here, we report an(More)
Current scholarship suggests that instead of fueling deregulation and a race to the bottom, globalization and neoliberalism often go hand in hand with the expansion of regulatory rules and agents. We survey efforts to address this paradox. Building on analyses of nineteenthand twentieth-century regulation, research on the current period has produced two(More)
Corporations have become common targets of activism, but social movement research has barely begun to unpack the dynamics of anti-corporate campaigning. To address this gap, we theorize how particular companies get constituted as social movement targets and examine this process using a unique longitudinal, firm-level dataset on the apparel and footwear(More)
When communities of organic farmers began certifying ecologically friendly agriculture, they could never have guessed how prominent the certification model would become. Nearly four decades later, consumers can buy products not just from certified farms, but also certified forests, fisheries, and factories – with standards pertaining not only to the(More)
I. A. Burenkov,1,2,* A. K. Sharma,2 T. Gerrits,3 G. Harder,4 T. J. Bartley,3,4 C. Silberhorn,4 E. A. Goldschmidt,5 and S. V. Polyakov2 1Joint Quantum Institute & University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA 3National Institute of Standards and Technology,(More)
We argue that critiques of political process theory are beginning to coalesce into a new approach to social movements—a “multi-institutional politics” approach. While the political process model assumes that domination is organized by and around one source of power, the alternative perspective views domination as organized around multiple sources of power,(More)