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Four-band and single-band noise-excited vocoders were used in acoustic simulations to investigate spectral and temporal cues to melodic pitch in the output of a cochlear implant speech processor. Noise carriers were modulated by amplitude envelopes extracted by half-wave rectification and low-pass filtering at 32 or 400 Hz. The four-band, but not the(More)
A lichen growing in a continental Antarctic region with low temperatures and strong irradiance in summer was investigated for evidence of photoinhibition. Field experiments with Umbilicaria aprina from a sheltered site with heavy snowpack showed no effects of photoinhibition when the lichen was exposed to strong sun irradiance for nearly 11 h a day. This(More)
Green lichens have been shown to attain positive net photosynthesis in the presence of water vapour while blue-green lichens require liquid water (Lange et al. 1986). This behaviour is confirmed not only for species with differing photobionts in the genusPseudocyphellaria but for green and blue-green photobionts in a single joined thallus (photosymbiodeme),(More)
Pseudocyphellaria dissimilis, a foliose, cyanobacterial lichen, is shown not to fit into the normal ecological concept of lichens. This species is both extremely shade-tolerant and also more intolerant to drying than aquatic lichens previously thought to be the most desiccation-sensitive of lichens. Samples of P. dissimilis from a humid rain-forest site in(More)
Acoustic simulations were used to study the contributions of spatial hearing that may arise from combining a cochlear implant with either a second implant or contralateral residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in twenty-talker babble. Spatial separation of speech and noise was simulated using a spherical(More)
Much recent interest surrounds listeners' abilities to adapt to various transformations that distort speech. An extreme example is spectral rotation, in which the spectrum of low-pass filtered speech is inverted around a center frequency (2 kHz here). Spectral shape and its dynamics are completely altered, rendering speech virtually unintelligible(More)
Standard continuous interleaved sampling processing, and a modified processing strategy designed to enhance temporal cues to voice pitch, were compared on tests of intonation perception, and vowel perception, both in implant users and in acoustic simulations. In standard processing, 400 Hz low-pass envelopes modulated either pulse trains (implant users) or(More)
The limited spectral resolution of cochlear implant systems means that voice pitch perception depends on weak temporal envelope cues. Enhancement of such cues was investigated in implant users and in acoustic simulations. Subjects labeled the pitch movement of processed synthetic diphthongal glides. In standard processing, noise carriers (simulations) or(More)
The effect of high light levels on the two partners of a Pseudocyphellaria phycosymbiodeme (Pseudocyphellaria rufovirescens, with a green phycobiont, and P. murrayi with a blue-green phycobiont), which naturally occurs in deep shade, was examined and found to differ between the partners. Green algae can rapidly accumulate zeaxanthin, which we suggest is(More)
CO2 exchange rate in relation to thallus water content (WC, % of dry weight) was determined for 22 species of lichens, mainly members of the genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta, from a temperate rainforest, Urewere National Park, New Zealand. All data were obtained in the field, either using a standard technique in which the lichens were initially wetted(More)