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1. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the main mediator of the neuroendocrine and behavioral response to stress. End-capped phosphorothioate antisense and sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) corresponding to the start coding region of rat CRH mRNA were infused intracerebroventricularly (30 micrograms/3 microliters per injection) three(More)
Antisense DNA has been successfully used in vivo to selectively inhibit expression of proteins in the brain. However, stressful side effects after oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) application have been observed, but not carefully characterized. An attempt was made to establish an animal model of reduced corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity, using(More)
Anxiolytic effects of ethanol have been proposed to be important factors in the initiation of ethanol consumption. To examine this hypothesis, drug-naive Wistar rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze to determine their initial level of anxiety. Based on their response, we separated the animals into anxious and non-anxious groups. After that, animals(More)
To establish a new behavioral animal model of excitotoxicity, we injected adult rats intraocularly with a single dose of 2, 20, or 100 nmol of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). We quantified visual impairment by plotting the size of the visual field in which the rats successfully oriented towards a small, moving target. In comparison to the saline-injected(More)
<italic>As chip size and design density increase, coupling effects (crosstalk) between signal wires become increasingly critical to on-chip timing and even functionality. A method is presented to analyze crosstalk while taking into account timing relationship and timing criticality between coupling wires. The method is based upon the geometrical layout of(More)
Stress alters the sensitivity to drugs of abuse and is, therefore, considered to be an important contributory factor to drug-seeking behaviour. There is only a limited amount of information available on stress-induced alterations in the behavioural response to opioids. We thus evaluated the influences of different stressors (restraint, handling, social(More)
It has been suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system contributes to individual differences in sensitivity towards drug abuse. Therefore, we studied the effects of the prototypic drug morphine in transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function. This mouse model has a profoundly dysfunctional HPA feedback. Since(More)
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