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We report on the generation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms, which have an exceptionally large magnetic dipole moment and therefore underlie anisotropic long-range interactions. The preparation of the chromium condensate requires novel cooling strategies that are adapted to its special electronic and magnetic properties. The final(More)
Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here, we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed 87Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals(More)
We have observed Feshbach resonances in collisions between ultracold 52Cr atoms. This is the first observation of collisional Feshbach resonances in an atomic species with more than one valence electron. The zero nuclear spin of 52Cr and thus the absence of a Fermi-contact interaction leads to regularly spaced resonance sequences. By comparing resonance(More)
We study the appearance of correlated many-body phenomena in an ensemble of atoms driven resonantly into a strongly interacting Rydberg state. The ground state of the Hamiltonian describing the driven system exhibits a second order quantum phase transition. We derive the critical theory for the quantum phase transition and show that it describes the(More)
Atomic matter waves, just like electromagnetic waves, can be focussed, reflected, guided, and split by the passive atom optical elements of today. However, the key for many applications of RF and light waves lies in the availability of amplifiers. These active devices allow small signal detection and have led to the development of masers and lasers. Here we(More)
Symmetry-breaking interactions have a crucial role in many areas of physics, ranging from classical ferrofluids to superfluid (3)He and d-wave superconductivity. For superfluid quantum gases, a variety of new physical phenomena arising from the symmetry-breaking interaction between electric or magnetic dipoles are expected. Novel quantum phases in optical(More)
We investigate the collapse dynamics of a dipolar condensate of 52Cr atoms when the s-wave scattering length characterizing the contact interaction is reduced below a critical value. A complex dynamics, involving an anisotropic, d-wave symmetric explosion of the condensate, is observed. The atom number decreases abruptly during the collapse. We find good(More)
Rydberg atoms have an electron in a state with a very high principal quantum number, and as a result can exhibit unusually long-range interactions. One example is the bonding of two such atoms by multipole forces to form Rydberg-Rydberg molecules with very large internuclear distances. Notably, bonding interactions can also arise from the low-energy(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY Assessing back movement is an important part of clinical examination in the horse and objective assessment tools allow for evaluating success of treatment. OBJECTIVES Accuracy and consistency of inertial sensor measurements for quantification of back movement and movement symmetry during over ground locomotion were assessed;(More)
A Bose-Einstein condensate illuminated by a single off-resonant laser beam (" dressed condensate ") shows a high gain for matter waves and light. We have characterized the optical and atom-optical properties of the dressed condensate by injecting light or atoms, illuminating the key role of long-lived matter wave gratings produced by the condensate at rest(More)