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We study the appearance of correlated many-body phenomena in an ensemble of atoms driven resonantly into a strongly interacting Rydberg state. The ground state of the Hamiltonian describing the driven system exhibits a second order quantum phase transition. We derive the critical theory for the quantum phase transition and show that it describes the(More)
Atomic matter waves, just like electromagnetic waves, can be focussed, reflected, guided, and split by the passive atom optical elements of today. However, the key for many applications of RF and light waves lies in the availability of amplifiers. These active devices allow small signal detection and have led to the development of masers and lasers. Here we(More)
Symmetry-breaking interactions have a crucial role in many areas of physics, ranging from classical ferrofluids to superfluid (3)He and d-wave superconductivity. For superfluid quantum gases, a variety of new physical phenomena arising from the symmetry-breaking interaction between electric or magnetic dipoles are expected. Novel quantum phases in optical(More)
Rydberg atoms have an electron in a state with a very high principal quantum number, and as a result can exhibit unusually long-range interactions. One example is the bonding of two such atoms by multipole forces to form Rydberg-Rydberg molecules with very large internuclear distances. Notably, bonding interactions can also arise from the low-energy(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY Assessing back movement is an important part of clinical examination in the horse and objective assessment tools allow for evaluating success of treatment. OBJECTIVES Accuracy and consistency of inertial sensor measurements for quantification of back movement and movement symmetry during over ground locomotion were assessed;(More)
A Bose-Einstein condensate illuminated by a single off-resonant laser beam (" dressed condensate ") shows a high gain for matter waves and light. We have characterized the optical and atom-optical properties of the dressed condensate by injecting light or atoms, illuminating the key role of long-lived matter wave gratings produced by the condensate at rest(More)
Permanent electric dipole moments in molecules require a breaking of parity symmetry. Conventionally, this symmetry breaking relies on the presence of heteronuclear constituents. We report the observation of a permanent electric dipole moment in a homonuclear molecule in which the binding is based on asymmetric electronic excitation between the atoms. These(More)
We experimentally and theoretically investigate the dephasing rates of the coherent evolution of a resonantly driven pseudo spin emersed in a reservoir of pseudo spins. The pseudo spin is realized by optically exciting 87 Rb atoms to a Rydberg state. Hence, the upper spin states are coupled via the strong van der Waals interaction. Two different(More)
The coupling of electrons to matter lies at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. Electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, which forms the basis for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized(More)
The evolution of the transverse momentum of monochromatic light entering a multimode planar waveguide at large angle is investigated. We report on oscillations of the momentum caused by the beatings between the adjacent populated modes of the waveguide and their periodic collapses and revivals. A new type of an interferometer based on this effect with(More)