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Mature non-senescent leaves of evergreen species become gradually shaded as new foliage develops and canopy expands, but the interactive effects of integrated light during leaf formation (Q(int)G), current light (Q(int)C) and leaf age on foliage photosynthetic competence are poorly understood. In Quercus ilex L., we measured the responses of leaf structural(More)
Foliage photosynthetic and structural traits were studied in 15 species with a wide range of foliage anatomies to gain insight into the importance of key anatomical traits in the limitation of diffusion of CO2 from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts. The relative importance of different anatomical traits in constraining CO2 diffusion was evaluated using a(More)
Finite mesophyll diffusion conductance (g(m) ) significantly constrains net assimilation rate (A(n) ), but g(m) variations and variation sources in response to environmental stresses during leaf development are imperfectly known. The combined effects of light and water limitations on g(m) and diffusion limitations of photosynthesis were studied in(More)
In sclerophylls, photosynthesis is particularly strongly limited by mesophyll diffusion resistance from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts (r(m)), but the controls on diffusion limits by integral leaf variables such as leaf thickness, density, and dry mass per unit area and by the individual steps along the diffusion pathway are imperfectly understood. To(More)
Mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO(2) is a key photosynthetic trait that has been studied intensively in the past years. The intention of the present review is to update knowledge of g(m), and highlight the important unknown and controversial aspects that require future work. The photosynthetic limitation imposed by mesophyll conductance is large, and(More)
Ferns and fern allies have low photosynthetic rates compared with seed plants. Their photosynthesis is thought to be limited principally by physical CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons for low photosynthesis in species of ferns and fern allies (Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiopsida). We(More)
Mesophyll conductance is thought to be an important photosynthetic limitation in gymnosperms, but they currently constitute the most understudied plant group in regard to the extent to which photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency are limited by mesophyll conductance. A comprehensive analysis of leaf gas exchange, photosynthetic limitations,(More)
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) represents a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits concerning construction costs per unit leaf area, nutrient concentrations, and rates of carbon fixation and tissue turnover. Although broad trade-offs among leaf structural and physiological traits have been demonstrated, we still do not have a comprehensive view of the(More)
The amount and chemistry of litterfall have been known to strongly vary among the years with important implications for ecosystem nutrient cycles, but there are few quantitative data describing such variations. We studied the climatic implications on the variation in litterfall and its C and N input to soil in two distinct European coniferous forests.(More)