Tiina J. Kauppila

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An ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), is presented, and its application to the rapid analysis of compounds of various polarities on surfaces is demonstrated. The DAPPI technique relies on a heated nebulizer microchip delivering a heated jet of vaporized solvent, e.g., toluene, and a(More)
The ionization mechanism in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and the effect of solvent on the ionization efficiency was studied using 7 naphthalenes and 13 different solvent systems. The ionization efficiency was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher with dopant than without, indicating that the photoionization of the dopant initiates the(More)
Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is a novel method of ionization in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). It was originally developed in order to broaden the range of LC/MS ionizable compounds towards less polar compounds that cannot be analyzed by electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Studies done(More)
The performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in the analysis of a group of pharmaceuticals and their glucuronic acid conjugates is reported. The suitability of different sprayer solvents and different surfaces was examined. In the positive ion mode, water/methanol/trifluoroacetic acid performed best, whereas, in the negative ion mode,(More)
Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) is a versatile surface analysis technique for a wide range of analytes, especially for neutral and non-polar analytes. Here, a set of analytes typically found in environmental or food samples was analyzed by DAPPI-MS. The set included five polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one(More)
A comprehensive study was made, where desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) was applied to the direct analysis of confiscated drugs and pharmaceuticals of various forms and matrices. The analyzed samples included herbal products [Catha edulis (khat), Psilocybe mushrooms, opium and Spice], designer drugs in tablet and powder form [e.g.(More)
The most widely used ionization techniques in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) are electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). All three provide user friendly coupling of LC to MS. Achieving optimal LC-MS conditions is not always easy, however, owing to the(More)
The ionization mechanism in the novel atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) in negative ion mode was studied thoroughly by the analysis of seven compounds in 17 solvent systems. The compounds possessed either gas-phase acidity or positive electron affinity, whereas the solvent systems had different polarities and gas-phase(More)
The factors influencing desorption and ionization in newly developed desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) were studied. Redirecting the DAPPI spray was observed to further improve the versatility of the technique: for dilute samples, parallel spray with increased analyte signal was found to be the best suited, while(More)
In this paper we introduce laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass spectrometry. In LAAPPI the analytes are ablated from water-rich solid samples or from aqueous solutions with an infrared (IR) laser running at 2.94 μm wavelength. Approximately 12 mm above the sample surface, the(More)