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In order to determine the baseline state of oxidative stress indices in drug-free patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood samples of 34 subjects in disease stages I-III, according to the Hoehn & Yahr scale, compared with controls. The results showed a highly significant increase in malondialdehyde(More)
Increased excitability of the spinal motor system has been observed after loud and unexpected acoustic stimuli (AS) preceding H-reflexes. The paradigm has been proposed as an electrophysiological marker of reticulospinal tract activity in humans. The brainstem reticular formation also maintains dense anatomical interconnections with the cortical motor(More)
OBJECTIVE To test whether a novel paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol (J Physiol 545.1 (2002) 153) detects hemispheric differences in motor cortical inhibition. METHODS Nine right-handers and 8 left-handers participated. Focal paired TMS was applied to the hand area of the dominant (M1-D) or non-dominant motor cortex (M1-ND). Motor(More)
Acetylcholine powerfully modulates the excitability of neocortical neurones and networks. This study applied focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to eight healthy subjects to test the effects of a single oral dose of 40 mg tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on motor cortical excitability. It was found that tacrine decreased short-interval(More)
Monoamines are powerful modulators of cortical function. Serotonin has complex excitatory and inhibitory effects on animal cortex. Here, the effects of a single oral dose (100mg) of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor sertraline on human motor cortex excitability were investigated in healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to(More)
We have previously shown that in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) modifies spinal excitability via subcortical reticulospinal routes. To investigate whether STN-HFS also modifies spinal excitability via transcortical routes in PD, 10 patients with PD (9 men, 1 woman; 58.3 +/- 8.3(More)
We have investigated the effects of changing the coil-to-skull distance on the motor-evoked responses (MEP) induced with two different magnetic stimulator coils (80 mm round and figure-of-eight coil) at rest and during voluntary muscle contraction. The changes in MEP latency, amplitude and silent period (SP) duration induced by stimulation directly upon the(More)
1. MECHATRONIC SIMULATION Simulation tools like SPICE for electronics and CATIA for mechanics are widely available and used for verification of the performance of electrical or mechanical devices and systems. For electromechanical systems, interaction between electronics and mechanics is often essential for system functionality. A mechatronic simulation(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces changes in expression of proteins engaged in activity of excitatory and inhibitory systems as well as redox homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the effect of single (SS) and repeated session (RS) of intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS; cTBS) on the expression of vesicular(More)