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Although invasive plant species often reduce diversity, they rarely cause plant extinctions. We surveyed paired invaded and uninvaded plant communities from three biomes. We reconcile the discrepancy in diversity loss from invaders by showing that invaded communities have lower local richness but steeper species accumulation with area than that of uninvaded(More)
Predation can be intense, creating strong direct and indirect effects throughout food webs. In addition, ecologists increasingly recognize that fluxes of organisms across ecosystem boundaries can have major consequences for community dynamics. Species with complex life histories often shift habitats during their life cycles and provide potent conduits(More)
Using historic data sets, we quantified the degree to which global change over 120 years disrupted plant-pollinator interactions in a temperate forest understory community in Illinois, USA. We found degradation of interaction network structure and function and extirpation of 50% of bee species. Network changes can be attributed to shifts in forb and bee(More)
The number of ovules per flower varies over several orders of magnitude among angiosperms. Here we consider evidence that stochastic uncertainty in pollen receipt and ovule fertilization has been a selective factor in the evolution of ovule number per flower. We hypothesize that stochastic variation in floral mating success creates an advantage to producing(More)
There is little consensus about how natural (e.g. productivity, disturbance) and anthropogenic (e.g. invasive species, habitat destruction) ecological drivers influence biodiversity. Here, we show that when sampling is standardised by area (species density) or individuals (rarefied species richness), the measured effect sizes depend critically on the(More)
Although ecologists have a solid understanding of the positive species-area relationship, little is known about how and why variation in habitat area influences the richness, structure, and function of species interaction networks. To address this, we investigated plant-pollinator interaction networks of the herbaceous rocky outcrop communities in Ozark(More)
■ Abstract Quantifying the extent to which seed production is limited by the availability of pollen has been an area of intensive empirical study over the past few decades. Whereas theory predicts that pollen augmentation should not increase seed production, numerous empirical studies report significant and strong pollen limitation. Here, we use a variety(More)
Ecologists have put forth several mechanisms to predict the strength of predator effects on producers (a trophic cascade). We suggest a novel mechanism--in systems in which mutualists of plants are present and important, predators can have indirect negative effects on producers through their consumption of mutualists. The strength of predator effects on(More)
Theoretical studies of adaptation to sink environments (with conditions outside the niche requirements of a species) have shown that immigration from source habitats can either facilitate or inhibit local adaptation. Here, we examine the influence of immigration on the evolution of local adaptation, given an Allee effect (i.e., at low densities, absolute(More)
Evolution by natural selection improves fitness and may therefore influence population trajectories. Demographic matrix models are often employed in conservation studies to project population dynamics, but such analyses have not incorporated evolutionary dynamics. We project evolutionarily informed population trajectories for a population of the perennial(More)