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Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves progressive neurodegeneration in the presence of misfolded proteins and poorly-understood inflammatory changes. However, research has shown that AD is genetically, clinically, and pathologically heterogeneous. In frozen brain samples of frontal cortex (diseased) and cerebellum (nondiseased) from the University of Kentucky(More)
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent comorbidity with AD, estimated to occur in as many as 40% of AD patients. The causes of VaD are varied and include chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, microhemorrhages, hemorrhagic infarcts, or ischemic infarcts. We have developed a model of VaD by(More)
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, it is estimated that almost half of all AD patients have significant cerebrovascular disease comorbid with their AD pathology. We hypothesized that cerebrovascular disease significantly impacts AD pathological progression. We used a dietary model of(More)
UNLABELLED Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common form of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is estimated that 40% of AD patients also have some form of VCID. One promising therapeutic for AD is anti-Aβ immunotherapy, which uses antibodies against Aβ to clear it from the brain. While successful in clearing Aβ(More)
Gammagard IVIg is a therapeutic approach to treat Alzheimer's disease currently in phase 3 clinical trials. Despite the reported efficacy of the approach the mechanism of action is poorly understood. We have previously shown that intracranial injection of anti-Aβ antibodies into the frontal cortex and hippocampus reveals important information regarding the(More)
The polarization to different neuroinflammatory phenotypes has been described in early Alzheimer’s disease, yet the impact of these phenotypes on amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology remains unknown. Short-term studies show that induction of an M1 neuroinflammatory phenotype reduces Aβ, but long-term studies have not been performed that track the neuroinflammatory(More)
Lithium is an anti-psychotic that has been shown to prevent the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein through the inhibition of glycogen-synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β). We recently developed a mouse model that progresses from amyloid pathology to tau pathology and neurodegeneration due to the genetic deletion of NOS2 in an APP transgenic mouse; the(More)
Microglia are considered the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In response to harmful stimuli, an inflammatory reaction ensues in which microglia are activated in a sequenced spectrum of pro- and antiinflammatory phenotypes that are akin to the well-characterized polarization states of peripheral macrophages. A “classically”(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and is primarily caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. The overexpression of amyloid precursor protein gene may be sufficient to drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology that is observed in virtually all individuals with DS by the age of 40 years. There is relatively(More)
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits(More)