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BACKGROUND Studies evaluating the impact of the neighbourhood food environment on obesity have summarised the density or proximity of individual food outlets. Though informative, there is a need to consider the role of the entire food environment; however, few measures of whole system attributes have been developed. New variables measuring the food(More)
CONTEXT Recent cervical cancer screening guidelines state that the interval between screenings can be safely extended to 3 years in healthy women 30 years or older who have normal cytology results and have negative test results for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in(More)
Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, and hyperinsulinemia, a common condition in obese patients, may underlie this relationship. Insulin, in addition to its metabolic effects, has promitotic and antiapoptotic activity that may be tumorigenic. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, a related hormone, shares sequence homology with insulin, and has(More)
Obesity is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, a relationship thought to be largely explained by the prevalence of high estrogen levels in obese women. Obesity is also associated with high levels of insulin, a known mitogen. However, no prospective studies have directly assessed whether insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a related(More)
UNLABELLED Studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and their relation with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia have had conflicting results. However, these studies have varied in size and methods, and few large studies assessed HLA class I alleles. Only one study conducted high-resolution class I genotyping. The current investigation therefore involved(More)
BACKGROUND Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related morbidity, tuberculosis remains an important disease among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS By use of surveillance data, sociodemographic and clinical changes among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected tuberculosis patients in New York(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe outcomes after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS Women in two prospective cohort studies, the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS), were followed every 6 months after treatment of CIN using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing(More)
Despite concerns about nonresponse bias due to decreasing response rates, telephone surveys remain a viable option for conducting local population-based surveillance. However, this becomes problematic for urban populations, which typically have higher nonresponse rates. Unfortunately, traditional methods of evaluating nonresponse bias pose challenges for(More)
OBJECTIVES Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS Data came from(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis contact investigation identifies individuals who may be recently infected with tuberculosis and are thus at increased risk for disease. Contacts with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are offered chemoprophylaxis to prevent active disease; however, the effectiveness of this intervention is unclear as treatment completion is(More)