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Defining the immune mechanisms underlying protective immunity to helminth infection remains an important challenge. Here we report that lung CD4(+) T cells and Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) work in concert to block Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) development in the parenchyma within 48 h in mice. Immune-damaged larvae have a striking morphological… (More)
Hookworms infect more than 700 million people worldwide and cause more morbidity than most other human parasitic infections. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (the rat hookworm) has been used as an experimental model for human hookworm because of its similar life cycle and ease of maintenance in laboratory rodents. Adult N. brasiliensis, like the human hookworm,… (More)
Helminths are credited with being the major selective force driving the evolution of the so-called "type 2" immune responses in vertebrate animals, with their size and infection strategies presenting unique challenges to the immune system. Originally, type 2 immune responses were defined by the presence and activities of the CD4(+) T-helper 2 subset… (More)
Litomosoides sigmodontis is a cause of filarial infection in rodents. Once infective larvae overcome the skin barrier, they enter the lymphatic system and then settle in the pleural cavity, causing soft tissue infection. The outcome of infection depends on the parasite's modulatory ability and also on the immune response of the infected host, which is… (More)
Hookworm is a major public health concern, yet still relatively little is known about the immunological responses involved in human infection. Animal studies are mainly confined to using the natural rodent helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis as this has been proposed as the most accurate model of hookworm infection in the mouse, with both its life cycle… (More)
Intestinal worms are well known for their potent immuno-modulatory capacity. In a recent study, Navarro et al. (2016) identify a secreted hookworm protein that can suppress allergic responses in both mice and humans. This represents an exciting strategy for treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as allergy.
Traditional jet-in-air cell sorters have been designed and optimized to isolate small particles such as mammalian lymphocytes with an average diameter of 10 μm. We discuss the practical considerations of setting up a conventional jet-in-air cell sorter, using a 200-μm nozzle, to isolate the large parasitic nematode eggs of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, with… (More)
Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a nematode parasite of rodents, has a parasitic life cycle that is an extremely useful model for the study of human hookworm infection, particularly in regards to the induced immune response. The current reference genome for this parasite is highly fragmented with minimal annotation, but new advances in long-read sequencing… (More)
D uring the inflammatory response to infection or injury, macrophages are deployed to clear pathogens, dead cells, and debris. But macrophages also play a central role in subsequent tissue repair. On pages 1076 and 1072 of this issue, Minutti et al. (1) and Bosurgi et al. (2), respectively, expand our understanding of the plasticity of macrophages by… (More)
Mast cells have been implicated in protective immunity to helminth infection, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Shimokawa et al., 2017 report that mast cells are a bridge linking dying epithelial cells with effector type 2 innate lymphoid cells.