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Two regioisomers with C3 or D3 symmetry of water-soluble carboxylic acid C60 derivatives, containing three malonic acid groups per molecule, were synthesized and found to be equipotent free radical scavengers in solution as assessed by EPR analysis. Both compounds also inhibited the excitotoxic death of cultured cortical neurons induced by exposure to(More)
The neuroprotective effect of carboxyfullerene, a water-soluble derivative of fullerene, on the transient focal ischemia-reperfusion injury was investigated in rat brain. A focal infarction in the cerebral cortex was consistently observed 24 h after a 60-min transient ischemia by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and bilateral common carotid(More)
Carboxyfullerene, a water-soluble carboxylic acid derivative of a fullerene, was investigated as a protective agent against iron-induced oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of anesthetized rats. Intranigral infusion of exclusive carboxyfullerene did not increase lipid peroxidation in substantia nigra or deplete dopamine content in(More)
Ceramide has been suggested as the secondary messenger mediating the apoptotic signal for Fas engagement. By using different inhibitors, we demonstrated here that ceramide is unlikely a mediator of Fas-initiated apoptosis. First, cAMP prevented cell death induced by ceramide but not by Fas. Second, ceramide-triggered, but not Fas-triggered, apoptosis was(More)
The effects of carboxyfullerene on a well-known neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its active metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) were investigated. In chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats, cytosolic cytochrome c was elevated in the infused substantia nigra 4 h after an intranigral infusion of MPP+. Five days after(More)
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