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Repeated abuse of stimulant drugs, cocaine and amphetamine, is associated with extraneuronal dopamine accumulation in specific brain areas. Dopamine may be cytotoxic through the generation of reactive oxygen species, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), resulting from dopamine oxidative metabolism. In this work, we studied the cytotoxicity in PC12 cells (a(More)
Drug abuse is associated with brain dysfunction and neurodegeneration, and various recreational drugs induce apoptotic cell death. This study examined the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in psychostimulant-induced neuronal dysfunction. Using primary neuronal cultures, we observed that amphetamine (IC50=1.40 mM) was more potent than cocaine(More)
Drugs of abuse induce the release of dopamine in the central nervous system, particularly in the mesolimbic-mesocortical pathway. As dopamine may act as a neurotoxin, in this study, we analyzed the effects of the drugs of abuse, cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine, on the neurodegeneration of PC12 cells, a dopaminergic cell line, by evaluating the activity of(More)
Methamphetamine (METH), leading to striatal dopamine (DA) nerve terminal toxicity in mammals, is also thought to induce apoptosis of striatal neurons in rodents. We investigated the acute effects induced by multiple injections of METH (4 x 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2-h intervals or a single injection of METH (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on terminal dopaminergic toxicity(More)
The role of the serotonin system in the etiology and pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not clearly defined. High levels of platelet serotonin (5-HT) have been consistently found in a proportion of patients, and it is known that specific 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4) variants modulate transporter reuptake function, therefore possibly(More)
Cell death and reactive oxygen species production have been suggested to be involved in neurodegeneration induced by the drugs of abuse. In this study we analyze the toxicity of the following drugs of abuse: heroin, morphine, d-amphetamine, and cocaine in undifferentiated PC12 cells, used as dopaminergic neuronal models. Our data show that opioid drugs(More)
Given that administration vehicles and drug formulations can affect drug bioavailability, their influence on the pharmacokinetic profile of lamotrigine (LTG), a new-generation anti-epileptic drug, was studied in rats. Three different formulations administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg were used: (1) LTG suspended in a 0.25% methylcelulose(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that increases glutamate (Glu) levels in the mammalian brain and it is currently known that hippocampi are particularly susceptible to METH. Moreover, it is well established that the overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and AMPA ionotropic Glu receptors causes excitotoxicity. In the present(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with hepatotoxicity in susceptible patients. One such example is nimesulide, a preferential cyclooxygenase 2-inhibitor, widely used for the treatment of inflammation and pain. It was suggested that nimesulide could exert its hepatotoxicity by altering hepatic mitochondrial function, which was(More)