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KCNQ channels belong to a family of potassium ion channels with crucial roles in physiology and disease. Heteromers of KCNQ2/3 subunits constitute the neuronal M channels. Inhibition of M currents, by pathways that stimulate phospholipase C activity, controls excitability throughout the nervous system. Here we show that a common feature of all KCNQ channels(More)
The subjective feeling of cold is mediated by the activation of TRPM8 channels in thermoreceptive neurons by cold or by cooling agents such as menthol. Here, we demonstrate a central role for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) in the activation of recombinant TRPM8 channels by both cold and menthol. Moreover, we show that Ca(2+) influx(More)
Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels are important regulators of resting membrane potential and cell excitability. The activity of Kir channels is critically dependent on the integrity of channel interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Here we identify and characterize channel-PIP(2) interactions that are conserved among Kir(More)
The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PIP2] regulates many ion channels. There are conflicting reports on the effect of PtdIns(4,5)P2 on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. We show that in excised patches PtdIns(4,5)P2 and other phosphoinositides activate and the PIP2 scavenger poly-Lys(More)
Rapamycin (rapa)-induced heterodimerization of the FRB domain of the mammalian target of rapa and FKBP12 was used to translocate a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase (5-ptase) enzyme to the plasma membrane (PM) to evoke rapid changes in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) levels. Rapa-induced PM recruitment of a truncated type IV 5-ptase(More)
The molecular mechanism of ion channel gating remains unclear. Using approaches such as proline scanning mutagenesis and homology modeling, we localize the gate of the K(+) channels controlled by the (beta)gamma subunits of G proteins at the pore-lining bundle crossing of the second transmembrane (TM2) helices. We show that the flexibility afforded by a(More)
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are involved in both thermosensation and nociception. They are activated by heat, protons, and capsaicin and modulated by a plethora of other agents. This review will focus on the consequences of phospholipase C (PLC) activation, with special emphasis on the effects of phosphatidylinositol(More)
Inwardly rectifying potassium channels play an important role in regulating membrane excitability. Most of the inwardly rectifying K ϩ (Kir) 1 channels have been cloned and classified into subfamilies Kir 1– 6 (1, 2). The Kir 2.0 subfamily consists of constitutively active, strongly inwardly rectifying K ϩ channels. The first member to be cloned (3) was Kir(More)
Previously we demonstrated the presence of InsP3R-I, -II and -III subtypes in the zona glomerulosa. Now we have examined the expression of different subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) in the inner zones of rat adrenal cortex. RNA extracted from decapsulated adrenal tissue (zonae fasciculata-reticularis and the medulla) or from(More)
Activation of several inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (Kir) requires the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). The constitutively active Kir2.1 (IRK1) channels interact with PtdIns(4,5)P(2) strongly, whereas the G-protein activated Kir3.1/3.4 channels (GIRK1/GIRK4), show only weak interactions with PtdIns(4,5)P(2). We(More)