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Single sodium channel currents were studied in mouse neuroblastoma cells. Channel conductance (γ) was 11.6±3.4 pS at 6–8°C. Unitary current amplitudes and channel activity increased with increasing temperature. The Arrhenius plot of the conductance was linear between 5 and 35°C with an activation enthalpy of 27.1 kJ/mole (Q 10 =1.28). Amplitude(More)
We have identified a TTX-resistant low-threshold persistent inward sodium current in the cerebral giant cells (CGCs) of Lymnaea, an important state-setting modulatory cell type of molluscan feeding networks. This current has slow voltage-dependent activation and de-activation kinetics, ultra-slow inactivation kinetics and fast de-inactivation kinetics. It(More)
Recently, three novel flexor muscles (M1, M2 and M3) in the posterior tentacles of the snail have been described, which are responsible for the patterned movements of the tentacles of the snail, Helix pomatia. In this study, we have demonstrated that the muscles received a complex innervation pattern via the peritentacular and olfactory nerves originating(More)
Immunocytochemistry was performed on the nervous system of Helix by the use of an antibody raised against a myotropic neuropeptide, the catch-relaxing peptide (CARP), isolated from Mytilus edulis. In each ganglion of the central nervous system of Helix pomatia, numerous CARP-immunoreactive cell bodies and a dense immunoreactive fiber system could be(More)
Distribution, chemical-neuroanatomy, concentration, and uptake-release properties of histamine (HA)-containing neurons and the possible physiological effects of HA in the central and peripheral nervous system of the pulmonate snails, Helix pomatia and Lymnaea stagnalis, are described. In the CNS of both species, the distribution pattern of HA-immunoreactive(More)
Distribution of locustatachykinin-like immunoreactive (LomTKLI) and leucokinin like immunoreactive (LKLI) neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated and compared to that found in Helix pomatia. Occurrence of LomTKLI neurons in different ganglia of the freshwater bivalve, Anodonta cygnea, was also(More)
The aim of this study was to show the presence, distribution and function of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors in the CNS and peripheral nervous system of the mollusk, Helix pomatia. PACAP-like and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor (PAC1-R)-like immunoreactivity was abundant both in(More)
Effects of seven, pressure applied MIP (Mytilus inhibitory peptides) had been studied on D-neurons of the CNS of Helix pomatia in voltage-clamp experiments. In physiological saline, the peptides produced a hyperpolarization usually coupled with the cessation of any spontaneous spiking activity. Clamped at the resting potential ( approximately -60 mV),(More)
The effect of anatoxin (ANTX), the crude extract (AlgTX) and purified fraction (F1) isolated from cyanobacterium C. raciborskii was studied on the neurones of two snail species. ANTX and AlgTX exerted excitatory, inhibitory and biphasic effects on the spontaneous activity of identified neurones. Both ANTX and AlgTX elicited an inward current, which could be(More)