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BACKGROUND Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and(More)
Neurons are targets of toxicity induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Tat (transactivator of transcription). Exposure to Tat increases [Ca(2+)](i) in striatal neurons and activates multiple cell death pathways. In earlier studies the authors showed that Tat activated both caspase-3 and endonuclease-G, a caspase-independent effector of(More)
OBJECTIVE Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity is associated with the Gly671Val (G671V; rs45511401) variant of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Doxorubicin redox cycling causes lipid peroxidation and generation of the reactive electrophile, 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE). Glutathione forms conjugates with HNE, yielding an MRP1(More)
GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is the first committed enzyme in the raffinose biosynthetic pathway. We have previously characterized the maize (Zea mays) GALACTINOL SYNTHASE2 gene (ZmGOLS2) as abiotic stress induced. To further investigate the regulation of ZmGOLS2 gene expression, individual luciferase expression vectors,in which the luciferase gene was controlled by(More)
The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The(More)
Maize ALKALINE ALPHA GALACTOSIDASE (ZmAGA) is a key enzyme in the raffinose metabolism pathway. We have previously characterized the ZmAGA1 gene as heat shock induced in germinating maize seeds. Here, we report that ZmAGA1 is induced in maize leaves by heat shock, dehydration, NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid. The 1622 bp of the 5′-regulatory(More)
Background Lactation requires increased nutrient uptake, as the mother must provide enough nutrition for her offspring while still meeting her own nutritional needs. The lactat-ing dam increases her food intake twofold to adjust for a threefold to four-fold increase in energy demands. We have used the Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST microarray in order to map(More)
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