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GABA inhibits mature neurons and conversely excites immature neurons due to lower K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2) expression. We observed that ectopically expressed KCC2 in embryonic cerebral cortices was not active; however, KCC2 functioned in newborns. In vitro studies revealed that taurine increased KCC2 inactivation in a phosphorylation-dependent(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs. During miRNA biogenesis, the star strand (miRNA*) is generally degraded to a low level in the cells. However, certain miRNA* express abundantly and can be recruited into the silencing complex to regulate gene expression. Most(More)
Although focal cortical malformations are considered neuronal migration disorders, their formation mechanisms remain unknown. We addressed how the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system affects the GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal migration underlying such malformations. A focal freeze-lesion (FFL) of the postnatal day zero (P0) glutamic acid(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are granular aggregates in the cytoplasm that are formed under a variety of stress situations including viral infection. Previous studies indicate that poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae, can induce SG formation. However, the exact mechanism by which the picornaviruses induce SG formation is unknown. The localization of SG markers(More)
AIM/INTRODUCTION Both glucocorticoids and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to induce insulin resistance (IR) in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Here, we explore whether there is a correlation between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS Except for the control group, male rats were exposed to dexamethasone treated with or without para-chlorophenylalanine(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The epidemic of HFMD has been a public health problem in Asia-Pacific region for decades, and no vaccine and effective antiviral medicine are available. Curcumin has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries to treat a diversity of(More)
BACKGROUND Although there are several studies to investigate the smoking behaviors among rural-to-urban Chinese migrants, no study has focused individually on this population in Shanghai. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence and identify the determinants of tobacco smoking among rural-to-urban migrants in Shanghai. METHODS In this(More)
In order to study how the formation of focal cortical malformations is attributed to perturbation of developmentally multimodal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions, we made a focal cortical freeze-lesion on a rodent cerebral cortex at P0 (postnatal day 0). The microgyrus was formed at P7. GABA neurons were accumulated in the region surrounding necrosis at(More)
In this work, a metallic probe with a sharp tip and two half-circular nanostructures on its base is introduced and investigated. The proposed design aims at improving the detection performance of a probe for scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy in terms of enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Under the premise of processing feasibility, the(More)
Coxsackievirus B (CVB) belongs to Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family, and it is one of the most common causative pathogens of viral myocarditis in young adults. The pathogenesis of myocarditis caused by CVB has not been completely elucidated. In CVB infection, autophagy is manipulated to facilitate viral replication. Here we report that(More)