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To date, much of our knowledge about the signaling networks involved in the innate immune response has come from studies using nonphysiologic model systems rather than actual immune cells. In this study, we used a dual-tagging proteomic strategy to identify the components of the MyD88 signalosome in murine macrophages stimulated with lipid A. This systems(More)
Being able to keep the graph scale small while capturing the properties of the original social graph, graph sampling provides an efficient, yet inexpensive solution for social network analysis. The challenge is how to create a small, but representative sample out of the massive social graph with millions or even billions of nodes. Several sampling(More)
A tight junction (TJ) protein, claudin-1 (CLDN1), was identified recently as a key factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. Here, we show that another TJ protein, occludin, is also required for HCV entry. Mutational study of CLDN1 revealed that its tight junctional distribution plays an important role in mediating viral entry. Together, these data support(More)
In order to investigate the global and dynamic host microRNAs (miRNAs)/messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression alteration during in vitro acute HCV infection, a comprehensive microarray analysis was performed using human hepatoma cells. Totally, 108 human miRNAs and 1247 mRNAs were identified whose expression levels changed for more than 2.0-fold in response to(More)
The ability of 20-50 nm nanoparticles to target and modulate the biology of specific types of cells will enable major advancements in cellular imaging and therapy in cancer and atherosclerosis. A key challenge is to load an extremely high degree of targeting, imaging, and therapeutic functionality into small, yet stable particles. Herein we report(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that causes serious illness, including acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we have identified 175 proteins from a cell culture supernatant fraction containing the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus, among which fatty(More)
The actin cytoskeleton serves as a barrier that protects mammalian cells from environmental pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Several components of antimicrobial signaling pathways have been shown to associate directly with the actin cytoskeleton, indicating that the cytoskeleton may also serve as a platform for immune-associated molecules.(More)
The purpose of this study is to develop a novel kind of adjuvant for oral vaccine delivery. In order to effectively prevent the degradation of antigens in the gastrointestinal tract and optimize the uptake for M cells, a novel kind of hydrophobic carbon nanoparticle (C1) with the size of 470nm was synthesized by taking silica as a template and sucrose as a(More)
Laminectomy is a widely accepted treatment for lumbar disorders, and epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication. EF is thought to cause post-operative pain recurrence after laminectomy or discectomy. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has shown anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative functions. The object of this study was to investigate(More)