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A tight junction (TJ) protein, claudin-1 (CLDN1), was identified recently as a key factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. Here, we show that another TJ protein, occludin, is also required for HCV entry. Mutational study of CLDN1 revealed that its tight junctional distribution plays an important role in mediating viral entry. Together, these data support(More)
The microtubule-associated protein, tau, is a highly soluble molecule that is nonetheless capable of self-association into filamentous deposits characteristic of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. This state change is thought to be driven by phosphorylation and/or C-terminal truncation events resulting in intracellular inclusions, such as the(More)
The host innate immune response to viral infections often involves the activation of parallel pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathways that converge on the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Several viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to attenuate antiviral host signaling by directly interfering with the activation and/or downstream(More)
Laminectomy is a widely accepted treatment for lumbar disorders, and epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication. EF is thought to cause post-operative pain recurrence after laminectomy or discectomy. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has shown anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative functions. The object of this study was to investigate(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that causes serious illness, including acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we have identified 175 proteins from a cell culture supernatant fraction containing the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus, among which fatty(More)
In order to investigate the global and dynamic host microRNAs (miRNAs)/messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression alteration during in vitro acute HCV infection, a comprehensive microarray analysis was performed using human hepatoma cells. Totally, 108 human miRNAs and 1247 mRNAs were identified whose expression levels changed for more than 2.0-fold in response to(More)
To date, much of our knowledge about the signaling networks involved in the innate immune response has come from studies using nonphysiologic model systems rather than actual immune cells. In this study, we used a dual-tagging proteomic strategy to identify the components of the MyD88 signalosome in murine macrophages stimulated with lipid A. This systems(More)
In recent years, online social networks (OSNs) have dramatically expanded in popularity around the world. According to the data in October 2012, Facebook has 1.01 billion people using the site each month.1 Moreover, the numbers of users in five popular OSNs are listed in Table 1. The rapid growth of OSNs has attracted a large number of researchers to(More)
Recent work in security and systems has embraced the use of machine learning (ML) techniques for identifying misbehavior, e.g. email spam and fake (Sybil) users in social networks. However, ML models are typically derived from fixed datasets, and must be periodically retrained. In adversarial environments, attackers can adapt by modifying their behavior or(More)
By using DNA nuclease digestion and a quantitative "dual tagging" proteomic approach that integrated mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling, and affinity purification, we studied the histone H2AX-associating protein complex in chromatin in mammalian cells in response to ionizing radiation (IR). In the non-irradiated control cells, calmodulin (CaM) and(More)