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Not all patients with nerve injury develop neuropathic pain. The extent of nerve damage and age at the time of injury are two of the few risk factors identified to date. In addition, preclinical studies show that neuropathic pain variance is heritable. To define such factors further, we performed a large-scale gene profiling experiment which plotted global(More)
We report that GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, is a key modulator of peripheral neuropathic and inflammatory pain. BH4 is an essential cofactor for catecholamine, serotonin and nitric oxide production. After axonal injury, concentrations of BH4 rose in primary sensory neurons, owing to(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Dental caries is a common chronic disease that causes pain and disability across all age groups. If left untreated, dental caries can lead to pain and infection, tooth loss, and edentulism (total tooth loss). Dental sealants are effective in preventing dental caries in the occlusal (chewing) and other pitted and fissured surfaces of the(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging measures have been proposed as objective markers to study upper motor neuron loss in motor neuron disorders. Cross-sectional studies have identified imaging differences between groups of healthy controls and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) that correlate with disease severity,(More)
OBJECTIVE The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in an outpatient clinic population, and (2) to test the hypothesis that damage of inputs to the cerebellum, leading to cerebellar dysmodulation,(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic periodontitis (CP) risk is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Using a case-control design, we tested for associations between CP and selected DNA sequence variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) in or near genes coding for proteins that play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. METHODS DNA was analyzed(More)
INTRODUCTION Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). The aims of this study were to (1) compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2) explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion(More)
Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favours the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation;(More)
OBJECT Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is a heritable tumor predisposition syndrome that leads to the development of multiple intracranial tumors, including meningiomas and schwannomas. Because the natural history of these tumors has not been determined, their optimal management has not been established. To define the natural history of NF2-associated(More)
The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease,(More)