Tianqi O. Zhang

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γD-Crystallin is an abundant structural protein of the lens that is found in native and modified forms in cataractous aggregates. We establish that UV-B irradiation of γD-Crystallin leads to structurally specific modifications and precipitation via two mechanisms: amorphous aggregates and amyloid fibers. UV-B radiation causes cleavage of the backbone, in(More)
Plants undergo a series of developmental transitions during their life cycle. After seed germination, plants pass through two distinct phases: the vegetative phase in which leaves are produced and the reproductive phase in which flowering occurs. Based on the reproductive competence and morphological changes, the vegetative phase can be further divided into(More)
The eye lens protein γD-crystallin contributes to cataract formation in the lens. In vitro experiments show that γD-crystallin has a high propensity to form amyloid fibers when denatured, and that denaturation by acid or UV-B photodamage results in its C-terminal domain forming the β-sheet core of amyloid fibers. Here, we show that thermal denaturation(More)
We report a new electrochemical capacitor with an aqueous KI-KOH electrolyte that exhibits a higher specific energy and power than the state-of-the-art nonaqueous electrochemical capacitors. In addition to electrical double layer capacitance, redox reactions in this device contribute to charge storage at both positive and negative electrodes via a catholyte(More)
High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in(More)
Trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in municipal wastewater effluents that are discharged to streams are of potential concern to ecosystem and human health. This study examined the fate of a suite of TOrCs and estrogenic activity in water and sediments in an effluent-dependent stream in Tucson, Arizona. Sampling campaigns were performed during 2011 to 2013(More)
Cataracts are formed by the aggregation of crystallin proteins in the eye lens. Many in vitro studies have established that crystallin proteins precipitate into aggregates that contain amyloid fibers when denatured, but there is little evidence that ex vivo cataracts contain amyloid. In this study, we collect two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra on(More)
By adding a mid-infrared pulse shaper to a sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectrometer, we have built a 2D SFG spectrometer capable of measuring spectra analogous to 2D IR spectra but with monolayer sensitivity and SFG selection rules. In this paper, we describe the experimental apparatus and provide an introduction to 2D SFG spectroscopy to help the reader(More)
This chapter provides protocols for isotope-labeling the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) involved in type II diabetes and γD-crystallin involved in cataract formation. Because isotope labeling improves the structural resolution, these protocols are useful for experiments using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), two-dimensional infrared (2D(More)
Cataracts is a misfolding protein disease in which one of the major components is the γD-crystallin protein. The conformational structure of the aggregated γD-crystallin and the interactions that cause aggregation are largely unknown. A recent experimental two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy study determined that the C-terminal domain has a high(More)