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The immune system can act as an extrinsic suppressor of tumors. Therefore, tumor progression depends in part on mechanisms that downmodulate intrinsic immune surveillance. Identifying these inhibitory pathways may provide promising targets to enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we show that Stat3 is constitutively activated in diverse tumor-infiltrating(More)
Although tumor progression involves processes such as tissue invasion that can activate inflammatory responses, the immune system largely ignores or tolerates disseminated cancers. The mechanisms that block initiation of immune responses during cancer development are poorly understood. We report here that constitutive activation of Stat-3, a common(More)
Non-receptor and receptor tyrosine kinases, such as Src and EGF receptor (EGFR), are major inducers of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most potent mediators of angiogenesis. While tyrosine kinases signal through multiple pathways, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a point of convergence for many of these(More)
Cel5A (endoglucanase II) of Trichoderma reesei was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae then purified. Two components (C1 and C2) of recombinant Cel5A with different glycosylation were obtained. Purified C1 had a larger molecular mass (57 kDa) than that of the native Cel5A produced by T. reesei (48 kDa) due to the different extents of asparagines-linked(More)
Penicillium decumbens is an important industrial filamentous fungus and has been widely used in biorefinery due to its high production of cellulase and hemicellulase. However, molecular engineering has still rarely been applied for strain improvement in P. decumbens. It has been proven that gene targeting manipulation in many filamentous fungi is hampered(More)
The potential of cellulase has been revealed not only in biomass conversion but also in various industrial processes, including food, textiles, laundry, pulp, and paper. Due to the need for alkali-tolerant cellulase with high specific activity at alkaline pH, for example, for application in detergent industry an error-prone PCR approach was employed for(More)
The industrially applied ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (synonym: Trichoderma reesei) exhibits a low rate of exogenous DNA integration by homologous recombination (HR). This hinders the high-throughput generation of strains by gene replacement and is therefore impeding systematic functional gene analyses towards, e.g. strain improvement for protein or enzyme(More)
To construct strains of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei with low cellobiohydrolases while high endoglucanase activity, the P(cbh1)-eg3-T(cbh1) cassette was constructed and the coding sequence of the cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene was replaced with the coding sequence of the eg3 gene by homologous recombination. Disruption of the cbh1 gene was(More)
Granulysin is expressed as two isoforms by human cytotoxic cells: a single mRNA gives rise to 15 kDa granulysin, a portion of which is cleaved to a 9 kDa protein. Studies with recombinant 9 kDa granulysin have demonstrated its cytolytic and proinflammatory properties, but much less is known about the biologic function of the 15 kDa isoform. In this study,(More)
Web service has already been an important paradigm for web applications. Growing number of services need efficiently locating the desired web services. The similarity metric of web services plays important role in service search and classification. The very small text fragments in WSDL of web services are unsuitable for applying the traditional IR(More)