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Understanding how metabolic reactions translate the genome of an organism into its phenotype is a grand challenge in biology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) statistically connect genotypes to phenotypes, without any recourse to known molecular interactions, whereas a molecular mechanistic description ties gene function to phenotype through gene(More)
—A failure detection service is perfect if it eventually detects all failures and every detection correctly identifies a failure that has occurred. Such a perfect failure detection service serves as a basic building block for many reliable distributed systems, for example in distributed lock services. In this paper, we introduce a perfect failure detection(More)
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and(More)
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