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Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. These materials are increasingly being used for commercial purposes such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and drug carriers. Materials in this size range may approach the length scale at which some specific physical(More)
Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit novel physicochemical properties that determine their interaction with biological substrates and processes. Three metal oxide nanoparticles that are currently being produced in high tonnage, TiO(2), ZnO, and CeO(2), were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis process and compared in a mechanistic study to elucidate the(More)
Rapid growth in nanotechnology is increasing the likelihood of engineered nanomaterials coming into contact with humans and the environment. Nanoparticles interacting with proteins, membranes, cells, DNA and organelles establish a series of nanoparticle/biological interfaces that depend on colloidal forces as well as dynamic biophysicochemical interactions.(More)
Nanomaterial properties differ from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to execute novel activities. A possible downside of these capabilities is harmful interactions with biological systems, with the potential to generate toxicity. An approach to assess the safety of nanomaterials is urgently required. We compared the cellular(More)
Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of(More)
The exponential increase in the number of new nanomaterials that are being produced increases the likelihood of adverse biological effects in humans and the environment. In this study we compared the effects of cationic nanoparticles in five different cell lines that represent portal-of-entry or systemic cellular targets for engineered nanoparticles.(More)
We demonstrate for 24 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles that it is possible to use conduction band energy levels to delineate their toxicological potential at cellular and whole animal levels. Among the materials, the overlap of conduction band energy (E(c)) levels with the cellular redox potential (-4.12 to -4.84 eV) was strongly correlated to the ability of(More)
Drug delivery, magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, magnetic manipulation, and cell targeting are simultaneously possible using a multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated inside mesostructured silica spheres that were labeled with fluorescent dye molecules and coated with hydrophilic(More)
Sac family phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatases are an essential family of CX(5)R(T/S)-based enzymes, involved in numerous aspects of cellular function such as PI homeostasis, cellular signalling, and membrane trafficking. Genetic deletions of several Sac family members result in lethality in animal models and mutations of the Sac3 gene have been found in(More)
Particulate pollutants cause adverse health effects through the generation of oxidative stress. A key question is whether these effects are mediated by the particles or their chemical compounds. In this article we show that aliphatic, aromatic, and polar organic compounds, fractionated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), exert differential toxic effects(More)