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Bechara, Damasio, and coworkers [Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D. & Damasio, A. R. (1997) Science 275, 1293-1295] have reported that normal participants decide advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy in a simple card game designed to mimic real-life decision-making. Bechara et al. have used this result to support their view that(More)
Over the last decade and a half, reinforcement learning models have fostered an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the functions of dopamine and cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBGTC) circuits. More recently, these models, and the insights that they afford, have started to be used to understand important aspects of several psychiatric and(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the neural correlates of cognitive control. However, for many youths with ADHD, emotional lability is an important clinical feature of the disorder. We aimed to identify the neural substrates associated with emotional lability that were distinct from(More)
OBJECTIVE Emotional reactivity is one of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to identify neural substrates associated with emotional reactivity and to assess the effects of stimulants on those substrates. METHOD We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural activity(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine neural activity and connectivity within cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and to reveal circuit-based neural mechanisms that govern tic generation in Tourette's syndrome. METHOD Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 13 individuals with Tourette's syndrome and 21 healthy(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood(More)
  • Tiago V Maia
  • Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience
  • 2009
The field of reinforcement learning has greatly influenced the neuroscientific study of conditioning. This article provides an introduction to reinforcement learning followed by an examination of the successes and challenges using reinforcement learning to understand the neural bases of conditioning. Successes reviewed include (1) the mapping of positive(More)
Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of(More)
Two-factor theory (Mowrer, 1947, 1951, 1956) remains one of the most influential theories of avoidance, but it is at odds with empirical findings that demonstrate sustained avoidance responding in situations in which the theory predicts that the response should extinguish. This article shows that the well-known actor-critic model seamlessly addresses the(More)
OBJECTIVE Disturbances in the basal ganglia portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits likely contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD. METHOD A total of 104 individuals(More)