— Internet Protocol layer multicast by means of electronic processing is going to be the bottleneck of the next generation optical networks. Optical routers with optical layer multicast capability will become the new focus to overcome the speed limit and simplify the logical network stack structure. In this paper, optical multicast technologies by… (More)
Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The… (More)
In this paper we present an overview of all-optical generation of vestigial sideband (VSB) signals based on self-phase modulation (SPM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s. An optical pump is used to saturate the SOA, avoiding self gain induced distortion. Operation with co- and counter-propagation of the signal and pump is… (More)
A 40 Gb/s wavelength and return-to-zero (RZ) to non-RZ (NRZ) pulse format converter is experimentally demonstrated. The converter is based on wavelength conversion in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and detuned optical filtering. The ideal filter response is investigated, and approximated experimentally cascading two filters, for a 3 ps 40 Gb/s… (More)
Some of the most promising transmitter linearization techniques for high performance radio over fiber systems are reviewed and compared through simulation tests. Comparison is focused on Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) operated at low bias; MZM conventionally biased at quadrature, driven with low modulation depth and cascaded with a notch optical filter;… (More)
VII Use of standard fluorescence microscopy to assess modifications in the plasma membrane potential and in the intracellular concentration of inorganic ions in cultured cells S.