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To identify natural infections by Leishmania spp. in insect vectors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, we performed field studies in natural and anthropic environments in the Guaicurus Settlement (Bodoquena Range) of the Bonito municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. From October 2002 to October 2003, a total of 1395 sandfly females were(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is one of the multilocus enzymes used to identify Leishmania by zymodeme analysis. The polymorphic pattern revealed by partial characterization of the gene encoding G6PD generated molecular markers useful in the identification of different Leishmania species by PCR. Initially degenerate oligonucleotides were designed(More)
The genomic organisation of the gene encoding Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis arginase as well as its flanking regions were characterised. The size of the transcribed RNA was determined, allowing us to map the genomic sites signalling for RNA trans-splicing and putative polyadenylation regions. The general organisation was compared with genes encoding(More)
A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania (Viannia) parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host. Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania(More)
BACKGROUND Previous findings indicate that susceptibility to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients and asymptomatically infected individuals were associated with the adaptive immune response and clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To understand the basis for this difference we examined(More)
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was developed on the basis of the Leishmania glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase locus that enables identification and quantification of parasites. Using two independent pairs of primers in SYBR-Green assays, the test identified etiologic agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis belonging to both subgenera, Leishmania(More)
Leishmania (Viannia) organisms are the most prevalent etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the immunological mechanisms exploited by L. (Viannia) organisms remains limited and the mechanisms underlying disease are not well understood. Here, we report the development of a BALB/c mouse model of L.(More)
Leishmania (Viannia) parasites are etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. Infection is characterized by a mixed Th1/Th2 inflammatory response, which contributes to disease pathology. However, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in Leishmania (Viannia) disease pathogenesis is unclear. Using the mouse model of chronic L. (V.)(More)
Leishmania major encodes 2 orthologs of the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), whose functions in parasite growth or in the host-parasite interaction are unknown. To determine the importance of Leishmania-encoded MIF, both LmMIF genes were removed to produce an mif(-/-) strain of L. major This mutant strain replicated normally in vitro(More)