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We introduce a model for constructing vector representations of words by composing characters using bidirectional LSTMs. Relative to traditional word representation models that have independent vectors for each word type, our model requires only a single vector per character type and a fixed set of parameters for the compositional model. Despite the(More)
Canonical Wnt signaling has been implicated in the regulation of hematopoiesis. By employing a Wnt-reporter mouse, we observed that Wnt signaling is differentially activated during hematopoiesis, suggesting an important regulatory role for specific Wnt signaling levels. To investigate whether canonical Wnt signaling regulates hematopoiesis in a(More)
WNT proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. In blood and immune cells, WNT signalling controls the proliferation of progenitor cells and might also affect the(More)
The blood system is maintained by a small pool of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are required and sufficient for replenishing all human blood cell lineages at millions of cells per second throughout life. Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow are responsible for the continuous production of platelets in the blood, crucial for preventing bleeding--a(More)
In jawed vertebrates, development of an adaptive immune-system is essential for protection of the born organism against otherwise life-threatening pathogens. Myeloid cells of the innate immune system are formed early in development, whereas lymphopoiesis has been suggested to initiate much later, following emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells(More)
Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC(More)
Canonical Wnt signaling has been implicated in various aspects of hematopoiesis. Its role is controversial due to different outcomes between various inducible Wnt-signaling loss-of-function models and also compared with gain-of-function systems. We therefore studied a mouse deficient for a Wnt gene that seemed to play a nonredundant role in hematopoiesis.(More)
A detailed error analysis is a fundamental step in every natural language processing task, as to be able to diagnose what went wrong will provide cues to decide which research directions are to be followed. In this paper we focus on error analysis in Machine Translation (MT). We significantly extend previous error taxonomies so that translation errors(More)
Analysing the translation errors is a task that can help us finding and describing translation problems in greater detail, but can also suggest where the automatic engines should be improved. Having these aims in mind we have created a corpus composed of 150 sentences, 50 from the TAP magazine, 50 from a TED talk and the other 50 from the from the TREC(More)
A strict balance between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is required in order to maintain homeostasis, as well as to efficiently respond to injury and infections. Numbers and fate decisions made by progenitors derived from HSC must also be carefully regulated to sustain large-scale production of blood cells. The complex(More)