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Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by having specific requirements such as limited energy availability, low memory and reduced processing power. On the other hand, these networks have enormous potential applicability , e.g., habitat monitoring, medical care, military surveillance or traffic control. Many protocols have been developed for Wireless(More)
Multicast potentially optimises bandwidth consumption and node resources, when several users simultaneously participate in a communication session. Nevertheless, contrary to the expectations, IP multicast has not experienced widespread deployment, with the exception of IPTV. On the other hand, emerging Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications could(More)
Network Simulators are important tools in network research. As the selected topology often influences the outcome of the simulation, realistic topologies are required to produce realistic simulation results. The topology generator presented in this document, GenSeN, was created based on the authors' knowledge from several experiences. GenSeN is a tool(More)
The availability of tools to diagnose Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) failures is a key success factor for this type of networks as already demonstrated by several long-running deployments. By nature, WSNs are resource-constrained, fragile, complex to analyse, and failure-prone. Naturally, with the growing number of installations, it is becoming fundamental(More)
Although, traditionally, mobility has not been supported in Wireless Sensor Networks, many applications in these environments need to interact with each other in highly dynamic scenarios, where configurations can vary from static to dynamic. Sensors phenomena, observers and even the network itself can present different levels of mobility. This mobility in(More)
This paper examines the QoS of an energy efficient cluster based routing protocol called Low-Loss Energy Aware Routing Protocol (LLEAP) in terms of network lifetime and aims some modifications on this protocol to increase its performance. Biological inspired algorithm helps to enhance the performance parameters of LLEAP. A survey on network protocols for(More)