Thyagarajan Subramanian

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The basal ganglia are currently viewed as components of segregated corticosubcortical reentrant circuits. One of these circuits, the "motor" circuit, is critically involved in the development of parkinsonian motor signs. Current pathophysiologic models postulate that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei. The(More)
Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein protects against cell death induced by viral infection and certain external stimuli. The Bcl-2 protein can functionally substitute for the E1B 19 kDa protein. To identify cellular targets for the 19 kDa protein, we used the two-hybrid screen in yeast. We have isolated cDNAs for three different proteins, designated Nip1, Nip2,(More)
Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of unilateral stereotactic implantation of cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells attached to microcarriers (Spheramine) in patients with advanced PD in an open label pilot study. Six patients with advanced PD (3 males; 3 females; mean age 52.2 years; mean duration of PD 10.2 years; mean Hoehn and Yahr(More)
The gene for the Light Chain fragment of Tetanus Toxin (LC) induces synaptic inhibition by preventing the release of synaptic vesicles. The present experiment applied this approach within the rat midbrain in order to demonstrate that LC gene expression can achieve functionally and anatomically discrete effects within a sensitive brain structure. The deep(More)
Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance is often necessary for accurate targeting for stereotactic intracranial surgery in animals used for experimental research studies. The magnetic field created by the MR imaging equipment, logistics of the use of stereotactic head frame in confined space and the need to limit movement of the subject during the imaging(More)
Chronic treatment with levodopa (LD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause drug induced dyskinesias. Mucuna pruriens endocarp powder (MPEP) contains several compounds including natural LD and has been reported to not cause drug-induced dyskinesias. We evaluated the effects of Mucuna pruriens to determine if its underlying mechanistic actions are exclusively(More)
BACKGROUND Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells produce levodopa and can be isolated from postmortem human eye tissue, grown in culture, and implanted into the brain attached to microcarriers. These implants ameliorated the motor deficits in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of(More)
IMPORTANCE Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant that supports mitochondrial function, has been shown in preclinical Parkinson disease (PD) models to reduce the loss of dopamine neurons, and was safe and well tolerated in early-phase human studies. A previous phase II study suggested possible clinical benefit. OBJECTIVE To examine whether CoQ10 could slow(More)
Attachment of donor cells to microcarriers has been reported to make them more tolerable for transplantation into the brain. Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells have been previously reported to contain enzymes for the production of dopa. Therefore, we examined the host immune response and behavioral effects of xenotransplantation of hRPE cells(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of nigrostriatal neurons and depletion of dopamine. This pathological feature leads to alterations to basal ganglia circuitry and subsequent motor disability. Pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy with medications such as levodopa ameliorates the symptoms of PD but can lead to motor complications(More)