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Effective sensory processing requires matching the gain of neural responses to the range of signals encountered. For rod vision, gain controls operate at light levels at which photons arrive rarely at individual rods, light levels too low to cause adaptation in rod phototransduction. Under these conditions, adaptation within a conserved pathway in mammalian(More)
Reliable signal transduction via G-protein-coupled receptors requires proper receptor inactivation. For example, signals originating from single rhodopsin molecules vary little from one to the next, requiring reproducible inactivation of rhodopsin by phosphorylation and arrestin binding. We determined how reduced concentrations of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1)(More)
Although signals controlled by single molecules are expected to be inherently variable, rod photoreceptors generate reproducible responses to single absorbed photons. We show that this unexpected reproducibility-the consistency of amplitude and duration of rhodopsin activity-varies in a graded and systematic manner with the number but not the identity of(More)
Transmission of visual signals at the first retinal synapse is associated with changes in calcium concentration in photoreceptors and bipolar cells. We investigated how loss of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2), the calcium transporter isoform with the highest affinity for Ca2+/calmodulin, affects transmission of rod- and cone-mediated(More)
Purpose To characterize the ocular surface microbiome of healthy volunteers using a combination of microbial culture and high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques. Methods Conjunctival swab samples from 107 healthy volunteers were analyzed by bacterial culture, 16S rDNA gene deep sequencing (n = 89), and biome representational in silico karyotyping(More)
BACKGROUND Colouterine fistula is a rare complication of diverticulitis. We report 2 cases of colouterine fistula in elderly women presenting with fever and pyuria and managed with an aggressive workup and surgical treatment. CASES Two elderly women presented with persistent pyuria, abdominal pain and fever without a vaginal discharge. Imaging revealed(More)
Phototransduction begins when a photon activates a rhodopsin molecule. Activated rhodopsin activates the G-protein transducin, which activates phosphodiesterase, leading to decreased cGMP concentration and closure of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels. Termination of this process requires inactivation of rhodopsin and transducin. The former is mediated by(More)
Author details Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Department of Neurology, University of California(More)
Ocular infections remain a major cause of blindness and morbidity worldwide. While prognosis is dependent on the timing and accuracy of diagnosis, the etiology remains elusive in ~50 % of presumed infectious uveitis cases. The objective of this study is to determine if unbiased metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS) can accurately detect pathogens in intraocular(More)
BACKGROUND Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a heterogeneous early-onset retinal dystrophy, accounts for approximately 15% of inherited congenital blindness. One cause of LCA is loss of the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which is required for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina. METHODS AND FINDINGS An animal model of(More)