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Several studies in recent years have provided evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a non-clonal population structure punctuated by highly successful epidemic clones or clonal complexes. The role of recombination in the diversification of P. aeruginosa clones has been suggested, but not yet demonstrated using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Isolates(More)
Actinomyces naeslundii is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the CAD catecholaminergic neuronal cell line is an appropriate model system to study the regulation of D(1) dopamine receptor expression. In this report, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) up-regulates the expression of D(1) dopamine receptor in CAD cells. In addition, by comparing D(1) receptor mRNA(More)
Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as one of the key etiological agents of human dental caries. Despite its role in this important disease, our present knowledge of gene content variability across the species and its relationship to adaptation is minimal. Estimates of its demographic history are not available. In this study, we generated genome(More)
Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity; like related oral streptococci, it exhibits appreciable phenotypic and genetic variation. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. oralis was developed and the resultant data analysed to examine the population structure of the species.(More)
The expression of D1 dopamine (DA) receptor gene is regulated during development, aging, and pathophysiology. The extracellular factors and signaling mechanisms that modulate the expression of D1 DA receptor have not been well characterized. Here, we present novel evidence that endogenous D1 DA receptor expression is inhibited by extracellular cAMP in the(More)
Oral biofilms are functionally and structurally organized polymicrobial communities that are embedded in an extracellular matrix of exopolymers on mucosal and dental surfaces. These biofilms are found naturally in health, and provide benefits to the host. However, this relationship can break down, and disease can occur; disease is associated with a shift in(More)
Streptococcus mutans, consisting of serotypes c, e, f and k, is an oral aciduric organism associated with the initiation and progression of dental caries. A total of 135 independent Streptococcus mutans strains from caries-free and caries-active subjects isolated from various geographical locations were examined in two versions of an MLST scheme consisting(More)
Degradation of lithographic pattern fidelity is a major cause of yield loss in VLSI manufacturing. A general methodology for full-chip analysis and improvement of yield loss due to lithographic effects is proposed. The approach is based on: a) extraction of pattern fidelity statistics using a full-chip layout engine, b) full-chip Optical Proximity(More)
Actinomyces spp., predominant members of human oral biofilms, may use extracellular sialidase to promote adhesion, deglycosylate immunoglobulins and liberation of nutrients. Partial nanH gene sequences (1,077 bp) from Actinomyces oris (n=74), Actinomyces naeslundii (n=30), Actinomyces viscosus (n=1) and Actinomyces johnsonii (n=2) which included the(More)