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Discovering causal relationships in large databases of observational data is challenging. The pioneering work in this area was rooted in the theory of Bayesian network (BN) learning, which however, is a NP-complete problem. Hence several constraint-based algorithms have been developed to efficiently discover causations in large databases. These methods(More)
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the most effective approach to causal discovery, but in many circumstances it is impossible to conduct RCTs. Therefore, observational studies based on passively observed data are widely accepted as an alternative to RCTs. However, in observational studies, prior knowledge is required to generate the hypotheses about(More)
MOTIVATION microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an essential role in the post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants and animals. Currently, several computational approaches have been developed with a shared aim to elucidate miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships. Although these existing computational methods discover the statistical relationships, such as(More)
BACKGROUND microRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that are involved in several diseases, including cancers. Identifying miRNA functions is very important in understanding disease mechanisms and determining the efficacy of drugs. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to explore miRNA functions by inferring the miRNA-mRNA(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators at post-transcriptional level, and inferring miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships is a crucial problem. Consequently, several computational methods of predicting miRNA targets have been proposed using expression data with or without sequence based miRNA target information. A typical procedure for applying and(More)
Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are primary metazoan gene regulators. Regulatory mechanisms of the two main regulators are of great interest to biologists and may provide insights into the causes of diseases. However, the interplay between miRNAs and TFs in a regulatory network still remains unearthed. Currently, it is very difficult to(More)
Discovering causal relationships is the ultimate goal of many scientific explorations. Causal relationships can be identified with controlled experiments, but such experiments are often very expensive and sometimes impossible to conduct. On the other hand, the collection of observational data has increased dramatically in recent decades. Therefore it is(More)
Recent findings show that coding genes are not the only targets that miRNAs interact with. In fact, there is a pool of different RNAs competing with each other to attract miRNAs for interactions, thus acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). The ceRNAs indirectly regulate each other via the titration mechanism, i.e. the increasing concentration of a(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying cancer subtypes is an important component of the personalised medicine framework. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to identify cancer subtypes. However, existing methods rarely use information from gene regulatory networks to facilitate the subtype identification. It is widely accepted that gene(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants and animals. They regulate a wide range of biological processes by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Evidence suggests that miRNAs and mRNAs interact collectively in gene regulatory networks. The collective relationships between groups of miRNAs and groups of(More)