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The formation of eukaryotic ribosomes is a multistep process that takes place successively in the nucleolar, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. Along this pathway, multiple pre-ribosomal particles are generated, which transiently associate with numerous non-ribosomal factors before mature 60S and 40S subunits are formed. However, most mechanistic(More)
The regulation of multiple phases of the life cycle of synaptic vesicles is carried out by a complex series of protein-protein interactions. According to the SNARE hypothesis the core of these interactions is a heterotrimeric complex formed by syntaxin, SNAP-25, and VAMP-synaptobrevin. Other proteins interacting with the core of the SNARE complex, such as(More)
Membrane proteins of the synaptic vesicle and the presynaptic plasma membrane together with soluble proteins form a secretory fusion complex conserved from yeast to neurons (Söllner, T., Whiteheart, S. W., Brunner, M., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Geromanos, S., Tempst, P., and Rothman, J. E. (1993) Nature 362, 318-324). Two of the membrane proteins have been(More)
Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major constituent of the paired helical filament, the main fibrous component of the neurofibrillary lesions of Alzheimer's disease. Tau is an axonal phosphoprotein in normal adult brain. In Alzheimer's disease brain tau is hyperphosphorylated and is found not only in axons, but also in cell bodies and dendrites of(More)
Glutamate release from nerve terminals is the consequence of Ca2+-triggered fusion of small synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. ATP dependence of neurotransmitter release has been suggested to be founded, in part, on phosphorylation steps preceding membrane fusion. Here we present evidence for an essential role of phosphatidylinositol(More)
Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood. However, knowledge of the molecular etiology of astrocytomas WHO grade I and II is limited. Germline mutations in the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein, neurofibromin, in individuals with neurofibromatosis type I predispose to pilocytic astrocytomas. This association suggests that(More)
The membrane protein syntaxin participates in several protein-protein interactions that have been implicated in neurotransmitter release. To probe the physiological importance of these interactions, we microinjected into the squid giant presynaptic terminal botulinum toxin C1, which cleaves syntaxin, and the H3 domain of syntaxin, which mediates binding to(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins, initially believed to be exclusively present in the plasma membrane, have also been found to be associated with intracellular membrane compartments. There they are involved in various membrane trafficking processes including regulated secretion (reviewed in Bomsel, M., K. Mostov, Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 1317-1328 (1992)). Vesicles of(More)
In adrenal chromaffin cells, stimulation of Ca2+ influx leads to the secretion of neurotransmitters. The intracellular Ca2+ target involved in the fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane (PM) is still not known. We have reconstituted this fusion in vitro by using chromaffin granules (CGs) and target membrane vesicles and a Ca2(+)-dependent(More)