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BACKGROUND Subtle alternative splicing events involving tandem splice sites separated by a short (2-12 nucleotides) distance are frequent and evolutionarily widespread in eukaryotes, and a major contributor to the complexity of transcriptomes and proteomes. However, these events have been either omitted altogether in databases on alternative splicing, or(More)
BACKGROUND We suggest a new type of modeling approach for the coarse grained, particle-based spatial simulation of combinatorially complex chemical reaction systems. In our approach molecules possess a location in the reactor as well as an orientation and geometry, while the reactions are carried out according to a list of implicitly specified reaction(More)
Systems biology is the ever-growing field of integrating molecular knowledge about biological organisms into an understanding at the systems level. For this endeavour, automatic network reconstruction tools are urgently needed. In the present contribution, we show how the applicability of evolutionary algorithms to systems biology can be improved by a(More)
We demonstrate how a single-celled organism could undertake associative learning. Although to date only one previous study has found experimental evidence for such learning, there is no reason in principle why it should not occur. We propose a gene regulatory network that is capable of associative learning between any pre-specified set of chemical signals,(More)
The mammalian cell nucleus contains a variety of organelles or nuclear bodies which contribute to key nuclear functions. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, antiviral responses, the DNA damage response and chromatin structure, but their precise biochemical function in these nuclear pathways is(More)
DEF-like and GLO-like class B floral homeotic genes encode closely related MADS-domain transcription factors that act as developmental switches involved in specifying the identity of petals and stamens during flower development. Class B gene function requires transcriptional upregulation by an autoregulatory loop that depends on obligate heterodimerization(More)
The way how cell signals are generated, encoded, transferred, modified, and utilised is essential for understanding information processing inside living organisms. The tremendously growing biological knowledge about proteins and their interactions draws a more and more detailed image of a complex functional network. Considering signalling networks as(More)
Modelling and simulation of biological reaction networks is an essential task in systems biology aiming at formalisation, understanding , and prediction of processes in living organisms. Currently, a variety of modelling approaches for specific purposes coexists. P systems form such an approach which owing to its algebraic nature opens growing fields of(More)