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Rats were trained in a previously validated behavioral vigilance task that required them to detect visual signals of variable length and to discriminate signal from nonsignal events. Baseline performance was characterized by a signal length-dependent ability to score hits, a decline in hits over time, and a correct rejection rate of approximately 70%. After(More)
BACKGROUND Uraemic toxicity results in the dysfunction of many organ systems, provoking an increase in morbidity and mortality. To date, only approximately 90 uraemic retention solutes have been described. To examine unknown uraemic substances thoroughly, the identification of as many compounds as possible in the ultrafiltrate and/or plasma of patients(More)
INTRODUCTION The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is used in many countries to prioritize organ allocation for the majority of patients who require orthotopic liver transplantation. This score is calculated based on the following laboratory parameters: creatinine, bilirubin and the international normalized ratio (INR). Consequently, high(More)
BACKGROUND Successful therapy of chronic hepatitis B with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) has been defined by undetectable HBV-DNA determined with conventional PCR (lower limit of detection (LLD) 60-80 IU/mL) in clinical registration trials. However, current EASL guidelines recommend highly sensitive real-time PCR (LLD<10-20 IU/mL) and define treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The liver plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. In former studies, a ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (Fischer's ratio) revealed associations with hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were linked to sarcopenia in literature. Encephalopathy and sarcopenia are known to(More)
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