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Proteins modified by multiubiquitin chains are the preferred substrates of the proteasome. Ubiquitination involves a ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2, and often a substrate-specific ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3. Here we show that efficient multiubiquitination needed for proteasomal targeting of a model substrate requires(More)
Processing of integral membrane proteins in order to liberate active proteins is of exquisite cellular importance. Examples are the processing events that govern sterol regulation, Notch signaling, the unfolded protein response, and APP fragmentation linked to Alzheimer's disease. In these cases, the proteins are thought to be processed by regulated(More)
The OLE pathway of yeast regulates the level of the ER-bound enzyme Delta9-fatty acid desaturase OLE1, thereby controlling membrane fluidity. A central component of this regulon is the transcription factor SPT23, a homolog of mammalian NF-kappaB. SPT23 is synthesized as an inactive, ER membrane-anchored precursor that is activated by regulated(More)
Myosin motors are central to diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Homologues of the myosin chaperone UNC-45 have been implicated in the assembly and function of myosin-containing structures in organisms from fungi to humans. In muscle, the assembly of sarcomeric myosin is regulated to produce stable, uniform thick filaments. Loss-of-function mutations(More)
Intraneuronal deposition of aggregated proteins in tauopathies, Parkinson disease, or familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) leads to impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis). FENIB represents a conformational dementia, caused by intraneuronal polymerization of mutant variants of the serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin. In(More)
Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of(More)
The nervous system coordinates many aspects of body function such as learning, memory, behaviour and locomotion. Therefore, it must develop and maintain an intricate network of differentiated neuronal cells, which communicate efficiently with each other and with non-neuronal target cells. Unlike most somatic cells, differentiated neurons are post-mitotic(More)
The organization of the motor protein myosin into motile cellular structures requires precise temporal and spatial control. Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-45 facilitates this by functioning both as a chaperone and as a Hsp90 cochaperone for myosin during thick filament assembly. Consequently, mutations in C. elegans unc-45 result in paralyzed animals with(More)
The UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4) chaperones play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting myosin-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, RNA transport, and muscle development. To investigate the protein machinery orchestrating myosin folding and assembly, we performed a comprehensive analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-45. Our structural(More)
DNA damage responses have been well characterized with regard to their cell-autonomous checkpoint functions leading to cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. In contrast, systemic responses to tissue-specific genome instability remain poorly understood. In adult Caenorhabditis elegans worms germ cells undergo mitotic and meiotic cell divisions,(More)