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Protection afforded by HIV Tat-based vaccines has differed in Indian rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. We evaluated native Tat and Ad-HIVtat priming/Tat-boosting regimens in both species. Both vaccines were immunogenic. Only the Ad-tat regimen modestly reduced acute viremia in rhesus macaques after SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Confounding variables(More)
Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization(More)
We have shown that following priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, boosting with gp140 envelope protein enhances acute-phase protection against intravenous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(89.6P) challenge compared to results with(More)
Previously, chronic-phase protection against SHIV(89.6P) challenge was significantly greater in macaques primed with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr) recombinants encoding HIVtat and env and boosted with Tat and Env protein compared with macaques primed with multigenic adenovirus recombinants (HIVtat, HIVenv, SIVgag, SIVnef) and(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are important components of the innate immune system that mediate effector and regulatory functions. As effector cells, NK cells help control virus-infected cells through cell-mediated antibody-dependent mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Although macaques are an important and reliable animal model(More)
To date, most HIV vaccine strategies have focused on parenteral immunization and systemic immunity. These approaches have not yielded the efficacious HIV vaccine urgently needed to control the AIDS pandemic. As HIV is primarily mucosally transmitted, efforts are being re-focused on mucosal vaccine strategies, in spite of complexities of immune response(More)
The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus(More)
We previously demonstrated that replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinant prime/protein boost regimens elicit potent immunogenicity and strong, durable protection of rhesus macaques against SIV(mac251). Additionally, native Tat vaccines have conferred strong protection against simian/human immunodeficiency virus(More)
Measurement of Ag-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell activity in rhesus macaques has not previously been reported. Given that rhesus macaques are the animal model of choice for evaluating protective efficacy of HIV/SIV vaccine candidates and that TFH cells play a pivotal role in aiding B cell maturation, quantifying vaccine induction of(More)
An effective HIV vaccine requires strong systemic and mucosal, cellular and humoral immunity. Numerous non-human primate studies have investigated memory T cells, but not memory B cells. Humoral immunologic memory is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and differentiation of memory B cells into short-lived plasma blasts following(More)