Thorsten Demberg

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We have shown that following priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, boosting with gp140 envelope protein enhances acute-phase protection against intravenous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(89.6P) challenge compared to results with(More)
Protection afforded by HIV Tat-based vaccines has differed in Indian rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. We evaluated native Tat and Ad-HIVtat priming/Tat-boosting regimens in both species. Both vaccines were immunogenic. Only the Ad-tat regimen modestly reduced acute viremia in rhesus macaques after SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Confounding variables(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes B-cell dysregulation and the loss of memory B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These effects are not completely reversed by antiretroviral treatment (ART). To further elucidate B-cell changes during chronic SIV infection and treatment, we investigated(More)
To date, most HIV vaccine strategies have focused on parenteral immunization and systemic immunity. These approaches have not yielded the efficacious HIV vaccine urgently needed to control the AIDS pandemic. As HIV is primarily mucosally transmitted, efforts are being re-focused on mucosal vaccine strategies, in spite of complexities of immune response(More)
Previously, chronic-phase protection against SHIV(89.6P) challenge was significantly greater in macaques primed with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr) recombinants encoding HIVtat and env and boosted with Tat and Env protein compared with macaques primed with multigenic adenovirus recombinants (HIVtat, HIVenv, SIVgag, SIVnef) and(More)
As vaccine-elicited antibodies have now been associated with HIV protective efficacy, a thorough understanding of mucosal and systemic B-cell development and maturation is needed. We phenotyped mucosal memory B-cells, investigated isotype expression and homing patterns, and defined plasmablasts and plasma cells at three mucosal sites (duodenum, jejunum and(More)
This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral(More)
Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization(More)
High-level T cell expression of PD-1 during SIV infection is correlated with impaired proliferation and function. We evaluated the phenotype and distribution of T cells and Tregs during antiretroviral therapy plus PD-1 modulation (using a B7-DC-Ig fusion protein) and post-ART. Chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques received: 11 weeks of ART (Group A); 11(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are important components of the innate immune system that mediate effector and regulatory functions. As effector cells, NK cells help control virus-infected cells through cell-mediated antibody-dependent mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Although macaques are an important and reliable animal model(More)