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More than 50 years after its initial description, transient global amnesia (TGA) remains one of the most enigmatic syndromes in clinical neurology. Recent MRI data suggest that a transient perturbation of hippocampal function is the functional correlate of TGA because focal diffusion lesions can be selectively detected in the CA1 field of the hippocampal(More)
Rhythmicity in single fiber postganglionic activity supplying the rat tail. The temporal pattern of ongoing sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity may play an important role for neurovascular transmission. Here we analyzed the activity of postganglionic fibers projecting into the ventral collector nerve of anesthetized and artificially ventilated vagotomized(More)
The aetiology, pathomechanisms and anatomical correlates of transient global amnesia (TGA) still remain obscure. Recently, focal MR-signal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) changes in the hippocampus have been described in patients with TGA, but the exact localization, long term outcome and pathophysiological nature of these lesions still remain unknown. The(More)
The discovery of mis-sense mutations in the alpha1A subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine indicates the potential involvement of dysfunctional ion channels in migraine. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the brainstem modulates craniovascular nociception and, through its role in the descending pain(More)
Pain referral and spread in headache patients may be attributed to a sensitization of central nociceptive neurons with an increased excitability to afferent input. We investigated if noxious dural stimulation evokes sensitization of second-order neurons that leads to an increased responsiveness to stimulation of cervical afferents. Recordings were made from(More)
Neurones in the trigeminocervical complex are the major relay neurones for nociceptive afferent input from the meninges and cervical structures; therefore, they are the neural substrates of head pain. This review highlights the importance of two basic mechanisms in headache physiology: convergence of nociceptive afferents and sensitization of(More)
Patients with primary headaches often report pain that involves not only the front of the head, innervated by the first (ophthalmic) division of the trigeminal nerve, but also the back of the head, innervated by the greater occipital nerve (GON) that is a branch of the C(2) spinal root. The aim of this work was to study the physiology of trigeminocervical(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamus was found to be effective in the treatment of drug-resistant chronic cluster headache. We report the results of a multicentre case series of six patients with chronic cluster headache in whom a DBS in the posterior hypothalamus was performed. Electrodes were implanted stereotactically in the(More)
Autobiographical memories in our lives are critically dependent on temporal lobe structures. However, the contribution of CA1 neurons in the human hippocampus to the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memory remains elusive. In patients with a rare acute transient global amnesia, highly focal lesions confined to the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be(More)
The hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning and in the formation and consolidation of memory and is critically involved in the regulation of emotion, fear, anxiety, and stress. Studies of the hippocampus have been central to the study of memory in humans and in recent years, the regional specialization and organization of hippocampal functions have been(More)