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Differences in herbivory among woody species can greatly affect the functioning of forest ecosystems, particularly in species-rich (sub)tropical regions. However, the relative importance of the different plant traits which determine herbivore damage remains unclear. Defence traits can have strong effects on herbivory, but rarely studied geographical range(More)
1. Insect herbivory can strongly affect ecosystem processes, and its relationship with plant diversity is a central topic in biodiversity–functioning research. However, very little is known about this relationship from complex ecosystems dominated by long-lived individuals, such as forests, especially over gradients of high plant diversity. 2. We analysed(More)
Predatory arthropods can exert strong top-down control on ecosystem functions. However, despite extensive theory and experimental manipulations of predator diversity, our knowledge about relationships between plant and predator diversity--and thus information on the relevance of experimental findings--for species-rich, natural ecosystems is limited. We(More)
1. Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiments address ecosystem-level consequences of species loss by comparing communities of high species richness with communities from which species have been gradually eliminated. BEF experiments originally started with microcosms in the laboratory and with grassland ecosystems. A new frontier in experimental(More)
Global change is predicted to cause non-random species loss in plant communities, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. However, beyond the simple effects of plant species richness, little is known about how plant diversity and its loss influence higher trophic levels, which are crucial to the functioning of many species-rich ecosystems. We analyzed(More)
The burnet moth Zygaena anthyllidis, endemic to the high elevations of the Pyrenees, is vulnerable to land-use. In order to identify conservation priorities based on an assessment of genetic diversity within populations and gene flow among populations, we examined Z. anthyllidis’ genetic variability and differentiation based on allozyme electrophoresis from(More)
Biodiversity loss may alter ecosystem processes, such as herbivory, a key driver of ecological functions in species-rich (sub)tropical forests. However, the mechanisms underlying such biodiversity effects remain poorly explored, as mostly effects of species richness - a very basic biodiversity measure - have been studied. Here, we analyze to what extent the(More)
1. Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. 2. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity(More)
Classical glacial refugia such as the southern European peninsulas were important for species survival during glacial periods and acted as sources of post-glacial colonisation processes. Only recently, some studies have provided evidence for glacial refugia north of the southern European peninsulas. In the present study, we combined species distribution(More)
We investigated long-term responses (since 1850) of Fagus sylvatica (Luxembourg; central Europe) to shifts in temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition by analyzing diameter at breast height (DBH) increment, basal area increment (BAI), and tree-ring stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N). We compared stands on soils with contrasting water supply (Regosols(More)