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Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease that leads to striatal degeneration and a severe movement disorder. We used a transgenic mouse model of HD (the R6/2 line with approximately 150 glutamine repeats) to test a new therapy for this disease. We treated HD mice with metformin, a widely used anti-diabetes drug, in the drinking(More)
An ideal therapeutic for stroke or spinal cord injury should promote survival and regeneration in the CNS. Arginase 1 (Arg1) has been shown to protect motor neurons from trophic factor deprivation and allow sensory neurons to overcome neurite outgrowth inhibition by myelin proteins. To identify small molecules that capture Arg1's protective and regenerative(More)
Preventing neuronal death is a priority for treating neurological diseases. However, therapies that inhibit pathological neuron loss could promote tumorigenesis by preventing the physiological death of cancerous cells. To avert this, we targeted the transcriptional upregulation of p21(waf1/cip1) (p21), an endogenous tumor suppressor with neuroprotective and(More)
To regenerate damaged axons, neurons must express a cassette of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) that increases intrinsic growth capacity and confers resistance to extrinsic inhibitory cues. Here we show that dibutyrl-cAMP or forskolin combined with constitutive-active CREB are superior to either agent alone in driving neurite growth on permissive and(More)
We have developed a simple and sensitive assay to quantify neuron-specific death in primary cell cultures that represents a significant improvement over more commonly used methods including manual cell counting and lactate dehydrogenase release. This new method selectively detects neuronal death by combining immunolabeling for a neuron-specific marker with(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediates a broad, conserved adaptive response to hypoxia, and the HIF pathway is a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the mechanism by which in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation; OGD) affects canonical hypoxic HIF-1α stabilization. We validated the use of a reporter containing(More)
Protein bound and free 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) levels are elevated in neurodegenerative diseases and have been used as evidence for peroxynitrite generation. Intrastriatal injection of free 3NT causes dopaminergic neuron injury and represents a new mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). We are investigating the nature of free 3NT neurotoxicity. In primary(More)
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